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2017 Florida Statutes

Chapter 460
CHIROPRACTIC MEDICINE
CHAPTER 460
CHAPTER 460
CHIROPRACTIC MEDICINE
460.401 Legislative findings; intent.
460.402 Exceptions.
460.403 Definitions.
460.404 Board of Chiropractic Medicine; membership; appointment; terms.
460.405 Authority to make rules.
460.406 Licensure by examination.
460.4061 Restricted license.
460.4062 Chiropractic medicine faculty certificate.
460.407 Renewal of license.
460.408 Continuing chiropractic education.
460.41 Itemized patient billing.
460.411 Violations and penalties.
460.412 Sexual misconduct in the practice of chiropractic medicine.
460.413 Grounds for disciplinary action; action by board or department.
460.414 Chiropractic physicians subject to state and municipal rules and regulations.
460.4165 Certified chiropractic physician’s assistants.
460.4166 Registered chiropractic assistants.
460.4167 Proprietorship by persons other than licensed chiropractic physicians.
460.401 Legislative findings; intent.The sole legislative purpose for enacting this chapter is to ensure that every chiropractic physician practicing in this state meets minimum requirements for safe practice. It is the legislative intent that chiropractic physicians who fall below minimum competency or who otherwise present a danger to the public health be prohibited from practicing in this state.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 1, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 4, ch. 91-429.
460.402 Exceptions.The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to:
(1) Other duly licensed health care practitioners acting within their authorized scope of practice.
(2) Any person furnishing medical assistance in case of an emergency.
(3) The domestic administration of recognized family remedies.
(4) The practice of the religious tenets of any church.
(5) Any massage therapist acting within her or his scope of practice authorized in chapter 480.
(6) A chiropractic student enrolled in a chiropractic college accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education and participating in either:
(a) A community-based internship under the direct supervision of a doctor of chiropractic medicine who is credentialed as an adjunct faculty member of a chiropractic college in which the student is enrolled; or
(b) A chiropractic college clinical internship under the direct supervision of a doctor of chiropractic medicine who is a full-time, part-time, or adjunct faculty member of a chiropractic college located in this state and accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education and who holds a current, active Florida chiropractor’s license.
(7) A chiropractic physician who holds an active license in another state, the District of Columbia, or a possession or territory of the United States and is performing chiropractic procedures or demonstrating equipment or supplies for educational purposes at a board-approved continuing education program.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 63, ch. 89-374; s. 5, ch. 90-25; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 219, ch. 97-103; s. 104, ch. 99-397; s. 2, ch. 2005-262; s. 19, ch. 2016-230.
460.403 Definitions.As used in this chapter, the term:
(1) “Approved program” means a program for the education of certified chiropractic physician’s assistants, which program has been formally approved by the board.
(2) “Board” means the Board of Chiropractic Medicine.
(3) “Certified chiropractic physician’s assistant” means a person who is a graduate of an approved program or its equivalent and is approved by the department to perform chiropractic services under the indirect supervision of a chiropractic physician or group of physicians certified by the board to supervise such assistant. An approved chiropractic physician or group of physicians may indirectly supervise more than one certified chiropractic physician’s assistant.
(4)(a) “Community-based internship” means a program in which a student enrolled in the last year of a chiropractic college accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education is approved to obtain required pregraduation clinical experience in a chiropractic clinic or practice under the direct supervision of a doctor of chiropractic medicine approved as an adjunct faculty member of the chiropractic college in which the student is enrolled, according to the teaching protocols for the clinical practice requirements of the college.
(b) “Chiropractic college clinical internship” means a program in which a student enrolled in a chiropractic college located in this state and accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education obtains clinical experience pursuant to the chiropractic college’s curriculum in a classroom or chiropractic clinic operated by the chiropractic college, according to the teaching protocols for the clinical practice requirements of the college.
(5) “Chiropractic physician” means any person licensed to practice chiropractic medicine pursuant to this chapter.
(6) “Department” means the Department of Health.
(7) “Direct supervision” means responsible supervision and control, with the licensed chiropractic physician assuming legal liability for the services rendered by a registered chiropractic assistant or a chiropractic student enrolled in a community-based intern program. Except in cases of emergency, direct supervision shall require the physical presence of the licensed chiropractic physician for consultation and direction of the actions of the registered chiropractic assistant or a chiropractic student enrolled in a community-based intern program. The board shall further establish rules as to what constitutes responsible direct supervision of a registered chiropractic assistant.
(8) “Indirect supervision” means responsible supervision and control, with the licensed chiropractic physician assuming legal liability for the services rendered by a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant. Except in cases of emergency, indirect supervision shall require the easy availability or physical presence of the licensed chiropractic physician for consultation and direction of the actions of the certified chiropractic physician’s assistant. The board shall further establish rules as to what constitutes responsible indirect supervision of the certified chiropractic physician’s assistant.
(9)(a) “Practice of chiropractic medicine” means a noncombative principle and practice consisting of the science, philosophy, and art of the adjustment, manipulation, and treatment of the human body in which vertebral subluxations and other malpositioned articulations and structures that are interfering with the normal generation, transmission, and expression of nerve impulse between the brain, organs, and tissue cells of the body, thereby causing disease, are adjusted, manipulated, or treated, thus restoring the normal flow of nerve impulse which produces normal function and consequent health by chiropractic physicians using specific chiropractic adjustment or manipulation techniques taught in chiropractic colleges accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education. No person other than a licensed chiropractic physician may render chiropractic services, chiropractic adjustments, or chiropractic manipulations.
(b) Any chiropractic physician who has complied with the provisions of this chapter may examine, analyze, and diagnose the human living body and its diseases by the use of any physical, chemical, electrical, or thermal method; use the X ray for diagnosing; phlebotomize; and use any other general method of examination for diagnosis and analysis taught in any school of chiropractic.
(c)1. Chiropractic physicians may adjust, manipulate, or treat the human body by manual, mechanical, electrical, or natural methods; by the use of physical means or physiotherapy, including light, heat, water, or exercise; by the use of acupuncture; or by the administration of foods, food concentrates, food extracts, and items for which a prescription is not required and may apply first aid and hygiene, but chiropractic physicians are expressly prohibited from prescribing or administering to any person any legend drug except as authorized under subparagraph 2., from performing any surgery except as stated herein, or from practicing obstetrics.
2. Notwithstanding the prohibition against prescribing and administering legend drugs under subparagraph 1. or s. 499.83(2)(c), pursuant to board rule chiropractic physicians may order, store, and administer, for emergency purposes only at the chiropractic physician’s office or place of business, prescription medical oxygen and may also order, store, and administer the following topical anesthetics in aerosol form:
a. Any solution consisting of 25 percent ethylchloride and 75 percent dichlorodifluoromethane.
b. Any solution consisting of 15 percent dichlorodifluoromethane and 85 percent trichloromonofluoromethane.

However, this paragraph does not authorize a chiropractic physician to prescribe medical oxygen as defined in chapter 499.

(d) Chiropractic physicians shall have the privileges of services from the department’s laboratories.
(e) The term “chiropractic medicine,” “chiropractic,” “doctor of chiropractic,” or “chiropractor” shall be synonymous with “chiropractic physician,” and each term shall be construed to mean a practitioner of chiropractic medicine as the same has been defined herein. Chiropractic physicians may analyze and diagnose the physical conditions of the human body to determine the abnormal functions of the human organism and to determine such functions as are abnormally expressed and the cause of such abnormal expression.
(f) Any chiropractic physician who has complied with the provisions of this chapter is authorized to analyze and diagnose abnormal bodily functions and to adjust the physical representative of the primary cause of disease as is herein defined and provided. As an incident to the care of the sick, chiropractic physicians may advise and instruct patients in all matters pertaining to hygiene and sanitary measures as taught and approved by recognized chiropractic schools and colleges. A chiropractic physician may not use acupuncture until certified by the board. Certification shall be granted to chiropractic physicians who have satisfactorily completed the required coursework in acupuncture and after successful passage of an appropriate examination as administered by the department. The required coursework shall have been provided by a college or university which is recognized by an accrediting agency approved by the United States Department of Education.
(10) “Registered chiropractic assistant” means a person who is registered by the board to perform chiropractic services under the direct supervision of a chiropractic physician or certified chiropractic physician’s assistant.
(11) “Trainee” means a person who is currently enrolled in an approved program.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 2, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 1, ch. 90-25; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 113, ch. 94-218; ss. 1, 10, ch. 96-296; s. 1, ch. 97-247; s. 67, ch. 97-264; s. 271, ch. 98-166; s. 105, ch. 99-397; s. 77, ch. 2001-62; s. 3, ch. 2005-262; s. 39, ch. 2008-207; s. 33, ch. 2014-89.
460.404 Board of Chiropractic Medicine; membership; appointment; terms.
(1) The Board of Chiropractic Medicine is created within the department and shall consist of seven members to be appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate.
(2) Five members of the board must be licensed chiropractic physicians who are residents of the state and who have been licensed chiropractic physicians engaged in the practice of chiropractic medicine for at least 4 years. The remaining two members must be residents of the state who are not, and have never been, licensed as chiropractic physicians or members of any closely related profession. At least one member of the board must be 60 years of age or older.
(3) As the terms of the members expire, the Governor shall appoint successors for terms of 4 years, and such members shall serve until their successors are appointed.
(4) All provisions of chapter 456 relating to the board shall apply.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 3, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 12, ch. 87-172; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 114, ch. 94-218; ss. 56, 272, ch. 98-166; s. 115, ch. 2000-160.
460.405 Authority to make rules.The Board of Chiropractic Medicine has authority to adopt rules pursuant to ss. 120.536(1) and 120.54 to implement the provisions of this chapter conferring duties upon it.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 4, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 273, ch. 98-166; s. 122, ch. 98-200.
460.406 Licensure by examination.
(1) Any person desiring to be licensed as a chiropractic physician must apply to the department to take the licensure examination. There shall be an application fee set by the board not to exceed $100 which shall be nonrefundable. There shall also be an examination fee not to exceed $500 plus the actual per applicant cost to the department for purchase of portions of the examination from the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners or a similar national organization, which may be refundable if the applicant is found ineligible to take the examination. The department shall examine each applicant who the board certifies has:
(a) Completed the application form and remitted the appropriate fee.
(b) Submitted proof satisfactory to the department that he or she is not less than 18 years of age.
(c) Submitted proof satisfactory to the department that he or she is a graduate of a chiropractic college which is accredited by or has status with the Council on Chiropractic Education or its predecessor agency. However, any applicant who is a graduate of a chiropractic college that was initially accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education in 1995, who graduated from such college within the 4 years immediately preceding such accreditation, and who is otherwise qualified shall be eligible to take the examination. No application for a license to practice chiropractic medicine shall be denied solely because the applicant is a graduate of a chiropractic college that subscribes to one philosophy of chiropractic medicine as distinguished from another.
(d)1. For an applicant who has matriculated in a chiropractic college prior to July 2, 1990, completed at least 2 years of residence college work, consisting of a minimum of one-half the work acceptable for a bachelor’s degree granted on the basis of a 4-year period of study, in a college or university accredited by an accrediting agency recognized and approved by the United States Department of Education. However, prior to being certified by the board to sit for the examination, each applicant who has matriculated in a chiropractic college after July 1, 1990, shall have been granted a bachelor’s degree, based upon 4 academic years of study, by a college or university accredited by a regional accrediting agency which is a member of the Commission on Recognition of Postsecondary Accreditation.
2. Effective July 1, 2000, completed, prior to matriculation in a chiropractic college, at least 3 years of residence college work, consisting of a minimum of 90 semester hours leading to a bachelor’s degree in a liberal arts college or university accredited by an accrediting agency recognized and approved by the United States Department of Education. However, prior to being certified by the board to sit for the examination, each applicant who has matriculated in a chiropractic college after July 1, 2000, shall have been granted a bachelor’s degree from an institution holding accreditation for that degree from a regional accrediting agency which is recognized by the United States Department of Education. The applicant’s chiropractic degree must consist of credits earned in the chiropractic program and may not include academic credit for courses from the bachelor’s degree.
(e) Successfully completed the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners certification examination in parts I, II, III, and IV, and the physiotherapy examination of the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, with a score approved by the board.
(f) Submitted to the department a set of fingerprints on a form and under procedures specified by the department, along with payment in an amount equal to the costs incurred by the Department of Health for the criminal background check of the applicant.

The board may require an applicant who graduated from an institution accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education more than 10 years before the date of application to the board to take the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Special Purposes Examination for Chiropractic, or its equivalent, as determined by the board. The board shall establish by rule a passing score.

(2) For those applicants applying for the certification examination who have matriculated prior to July 1, 1996, in a chiropractic college, the board shall waive the provisions of paragraph (1)(c) if the applicant is a graduate of a chiropractic college which has been denied accreditation or approval on the grounds that its curriculum does not include the training in acupuncture necessary for the completion of the certification examination or is a graduate of a chiropractic college where acupuncture is not taught or offered if the college is accredited by or has status with the Council on Chiropractic Education or its predecessor.
(3) An applicant for the licensure examination may elect not to take the certification examination to use acupuncture. The department shall, in addition to the licensing exam, offer an examination for certification to use acupuncture. An applicant may elect to take the certification examination at the time of taking the licensure examination. Passage of the certification examination shall not grant any applicant the right to practice chiropractic medicine absent the passage of the licensing examination.
(4) The department shall submit written notification within 5 working days to applicants who have successfully completed the requirements of paragraphs (1)(a)-(e) and who have successfully passed the state licensure examination. An applicant who is notified in writing by the department of the successful completion of requirements in paragraphs (1)(a)-(e) and who has successfully passed the state licensure examination may lawfully practice pending receipt of the certificate of licensure, and the written notification shall act as evidence of licensure entitling the chiropractic physician to practice for a maximum period of 45 days or until the licensing fee is received by the department whichever is sooner.
(5) A student in a school or college of chiropractic accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education or its successor in the final year of the program may file an application pursuant to subsection (1), take all examinations required for licensure, submit a set of fingerprints, and pay all fees required for licensure. A chiropractic student who successfully completes the licensure examinations and who otherwise meets all requirements for licensure as a chiropractic physician during the student’s final year must have graduated before being certified for licensure pursuant to this section.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; s. 21, ch. 83-329; ss. 5, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 6, ch. 88-205; s. 1, ch. 88-276; s. 29, ch. 89-162; s. 44, ch. 90-228; s. 1, ch. 91-277; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 92, ch. 92-149; s. 1, ch. 94-173; s. 22, ch. 94-310; ss. 2, 3, ch. 96-296; s. 1102, ch. 97-103; s. 138, ch. 97-237; s. 2, ch. 97-247; s. 14, ch. 97-273; s. 274, ch. 98-166; s. 106, ch. 99-397; s. 119, ch. 2000-153; s. 1, ch. 2007-240; s. 3, ch. 2012-171.
460.4061 Restricted license.
(1) An applicant for licensure as a chiropractic physician may apply to the department for a restricted license without undergoing a state or national written or clinical competency examination for licensure if the applicant initially applies not later than October 31, 1994, for the restricted license and:
(a) Holds a degree from a college of chiropractic accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education or its predecessor agency and holds a bachelor’s degree.
(b) Has continuously held, since 1979, a license to practice as a chiropractic physician in another state, territory, or national jurisdiction and has actively practiced as a chiropractic physician for the 5 years immediately preceding application.
(c) Has never been disciplined for an offense that would be a violation under this chapter or chapter 456, imposed by another jurisdiction on the applicant’s license to practice as a chiropractic physician.
(d) Provides a completed application on forms approved by the department and pays all application and licensure fees applicable to applicants for licensure by examination, except the examination fee itself.
(2) Before granting a restricted license, the board may require an applicant to appear before the board. The board may not require a restricted licensee to practice under the direct supervision of a full licensee. However, the board may impose reasonable restrictions on the applicant’s license to practice as a chiropractic physician in this state. These restrictions include, but are not limited to, requiring a restricted licensee to:
(a) Submit to periodic and random departmental audits of the licensee’s patients’ treatment records and review of those records by the board.
(b) Subsequently appear before the board.
(c) Submit written reports to the department and board.
(3) A restricted licensee shall meet all statutory and regulatory requirements that are not in conflict with this section and that are imposed on a full licensee.
(4) A restricted licensee shall, if a disciplinary action against the licensee is not pending before the department and the licensee is not under discipline by the board, become a full licensee upon expiration of the 2-year restricted license if the licensee pays all applicable fees.
History.s. 2, ch. 94-173; s. 57, ch. 98-166; s. 116, ch. 2000-160.
460.4062 Chiropractic medicine faculty certificate.
(1) The department may issue a chiropractic medicine faculty certificate without examination to an individual who remits a nonrefundable application fee, not to exceed $100 as determined by rule of the board, and who demonstrates to the board that he or she meets the following requirements:
(a) Is a graduate of an accredited school or college of chiropractic accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education.
(b) Holds a valid current license to practice chiropractic medicine in another jurisdiction in the United States.
(c) Is at least 21 years of age and of good moral character.
(d) Has not committed any act or offense in any jurisdiction which would constitute the basis for discipline under this chapter or chapter 456.
(e)1. Performs research or has been offered and has accepted a full-time or part-time faculty appointment to teach in a program of chiropractic medicine at a publicly funded state university or college or at a college of chiropractic located in the state and accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education; and
2. Provides a certification from the dean of the appointing college acknowledging the appointment.
(2) The certificate shall authorize the holder to practice only in conjunction with his or her faculty position at a university or college and its affiliated clinics that are registered with the board as sites at which holders of chiropractic medicine faculty certificates will be practicing. Except as provided in subsection (4), such certificate shall automatically expire upon termination of the holder’s relationship with the university or college or after a period of 2 years, whichever occurs first.
(3) The holder of a faculty certificate may engage in the practice of chiropractic medicine as permitted by this section.
(4) Notwithstanding subsection (2), a chiropractic medicine faculty certificate is renewable every 2 years by a holder who applies to the board on a form prescribed by the board and who continues to satisfy the requirements set forth in subsection (1).
History.s. 1, ch. 2004-2; s. 2, ch. 2007-240; s. 1, ch. 2012-171.
460.407 Renewal of license.
(1) The department shall renew a license upon receipt of the renewal application and the fee set by the board not to exceed $500. An applicant for a renewed license must also submit the information required under s. 456.039 to the department on a form and under procedures specified by the department, along with payment in an amount equal to the costs incurred by the Department of Health for the statewide criminal background check of the applicant. The applicant must submit a set of fingerprints to the Department of Health on a form and under procedures specified by the department, along with payment in an amount equal to the costs incurred by the department for a national criminal background check of the applicant for the initial renewal of his or her license after January 1, 2000. If the applicant fails to submit either the information required under s. 456.039 or a set of fingerprints to the department as required by this section, the department shall issue a notice of noncompliance, and the applicant will be given 30 additional days to comply. If the applicant fails to comply within 30 days after the notice of noncompliance is issued, the department or board, as appropriate, may issue a citation to the applicant and may fine the applicant up to $50 for each day that the applicant is not in compliance with the requirements of s. 456.039. The citation must clearly state that the applicant may choose, in lieu of accepting the citation, to follow the procedure under s. 456.073. If the applicant disputes the matter in the citation, the procedures set forth in s. 456.073 must be followed. However, if the applicant does not dispute the matter in the citation with the department within 30 days after the citation is served, the citation becomes a final order and constitutes discipline. Service of a citation may be made by personal service or certified mail, restricted delivery, to the subject at the applicant’s last known address. If an applicant has submitted fingerprints to the department for a national criminal history check upon initial licensure and is renewing his or her license for the first time, then the applicant need only submit the information and fee required for a statewide criminal history check.
(2) The department shall adopt rules establishing a procedure for the biennial renewal of licenses.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 7, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 30, ch. 89-162; s. 2, ch. 90-25; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 168, ch. 94-119; s. 139, ch. 97-237; s. 15, ch. 97-273; s. 58, ch. 98-166; s. 117, ch. 2000-160.
460.408 Continuing chiropractic education.
(1) The board shall require licensees to periodically demonstrate their professional competence as a condition of renewal of a license by completing up to 40 contact classroom hours of continuing education.
(a) Continuing education courses sponsored by chiropractic colleges whose graduates are eligible for examination under any provision of this chapter may be approved upon review by the board if all other requirements of board rules setting forth criteria for course approval are met.
(b) The board shall approve those courses that build upon the basic courses required for the practice of chiropractic medicine, and the board may also approve courses in adjunctive modalities. Courses that consist of instruction in the use, application, prescription, recommendation, or administration of a specific company’s brand of products or services are not eligible for approval.
(2) The board may make exception from the requirements of this section in emergency or hardship cases.
(3) The board may adopt rules within the requirements of this section that are necessary for its implementation.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 8, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 17, ch. 88-392; s. 17, ch. 91-220; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 5, ch. 96-296; s. 275, ch. 98-166; s. 5, ch. 2007-240; s. 2, ch. 2012-171.
460.41 Itemized patient billing.Whenever a chiropractic physician licensed under this chapter renders professional services to a patient, the chiropractic physician shall submit to the patient, to the patient’s insurer, or to the administrative agency for any federal or state health program under which the patient is entitled to benefits an itemized statement of the specific services rendered and the charge for each, no later than the chiropractic physician’s next regular billing cycle which follows the fifth day after the rendering of professional services. A chiropractic physician may not condition the furnishing of an itemized statement upon prior payment of the bill.
History.s. 5, ch. 79-198; s. 2, ch. 81-318; ss. 11, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 4, ch. 91-429.
460.411 Violations and penalties.
(1) Each of the following acts constitutes a violation of this chapter and is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084:
(a) Practicing or attempting to practice chiropractic medicine without an active license or with a license fraudulently obtained.
(b) Using or attempting to use a license to practice chiropractic medicine which has been suspended or revoked.
(2) Each of the following acts constitutes a violation of this chapter and is a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083:
(a) Selling or fraudulently obtaining or furnishing any chiropractic diploma, license, or record of registration or aiding or abetting in the same.
(b) Making any willfully false oath or affirmation whenever an oath or affirmation is required by this chapter.
(c) Using the name or title “chiropractic physician,” “doctor of chiropractic,” “chiropractic medicine,” or any other name or title which would lead the public to believe that such person is engaging in the practice of chiropractic medicine, unless such person is licensed as a chiropractic physician in this state.
(d) Knowingly concealing any information relative to violations of this chapter.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 87, ch. 91-224; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 276, ch. 98-166; s. 50, ch. 2000-318.
460.412 Sexual misconduct in the practice of chiropractic medicine.The chiropractic physician-patient relationship is founded on mutual trust. Sexual misconduct in the practice of chiropractic medicine means violation of the chiropractic physician-patient relationship through which the chiropractic physician uses said relationship to induce or attempt to induce the patient to engage, or to engage or attempt to engage the patient, in sexual activity outside the scope of practice or the scope of generally accepted examination or treatment of the patient. Sexual misconduct in the practice of chiropractic medicine is prohibited.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; s. 311, ch. 81-259; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 277, ch. 98-166.
460.413 Grounds for disciplinary action; action by board or department.
(1) The following acts constitute grounds for denial of a license or disciplinary action, as specified in s. 456.072(2):
(a) Attempting to obtain, obtaining, or renewing a license to practice chiropractic medicine by bribery, by fraudulent misrepresentations, or through an error of the department or the board.
(b) Having a license to practice chiropractic medicine revoked, suspended, or otherwise acted against, including the denial of licensure, by the licensing authority of another state, territory, or country.
(c) Being convicted or found guilty, regardless of adjudication, of a crime in any jurisdiction which directly relates to the practice of chiropractic medicine or to the ability to practice chiropractic medicine. Any plea of nolo contendere shall be considered a conviction for purposes of this chapter.
(d) False, deceptive, or misleading advertising.
(e) Causing to be advertised, by any means whatsoever, any advertisement which does not contain an assertion or statement which would identify herself or himself as a chiropractic physician or identify such chiropractic clinic or related institution in which she or he practices or in which she or he is owner, in whole or in part, as a chiropractic institution.
(f) Advertising, practicing, or attempting to practice under a name other than one’s own.
(g) Failing to report to the department any person who the licensee knows is in violation of this chapter or of the rules of the department or the board. However, a person who the licensee knows is unable to practice chiropractic medicine with reasonable skill and safety to patients by reason of illness or use of alcohol, drugs, narcotics, chemicals, or any other type of material, or as a result of a mental or physical condition, may be reported to a consultant operating an impaired practitioner program as described in s. 456.076 rather than to the department.
(h) Aiding, assisting, procuring, or advising any unlicensed person to practice chiropractic medicine contrary to this chapter or to a rule of the department or the board.
(i) Failing to perform any statutory or legal obligation placed upon a licensed chiropractic physician.
(j) Making or filing a report which the licensee knows to be false, intentionally or negligently failing to file a report or record required by state or federal law, willfully impeding or obstructing such filing or inducing another person to do so. Such reports or records shall include only those which are signed in the capacity of a licensed chiropractic physician.
(k) Making misleading, deceptive, untrue, or fraudulent representations in the practice of chiropractic medicine or employing a trick or scheme in the practice of chiropractic medicine when such trick or scheme fails to conform to the generally prevailing standards of treatment in the chiropractic medical community.
(l) Soliciting patients either personally or through an agent, unless such solicitation falls into a category of solicitations approved by rule of the board.
(m) Failing to keep legibly written chiropractic medical records that identify clearly by name and credentials the licensed chiropractic physician rendering, ordering, supervising, or billing for each examination or treatment procedure and that justify the course of treatment of the patient, including, but not limited to, patient histories, examination results, test results, X rays, and diagnosis of a disease, condition, or injury. X rays need not be retained for more than 4 years.
(n) Exercising influence on the patient or client in such a manner as to exploit the patient or client for financial gain of the licensee or of a third party which shall include, but not be limited to, the promotion or sale of services, goods or appliances, or drugs.
(o) Performing professional services which have not been duly authorized by the patient or client or her or his legal representative except as provided in ss. 743.064, 766.103, and 768.13.
(p) Prescribing, dispensing, or administering any medicinal drug except as authorized by s. 460.403(9)(c)2., performing any surgery, or practicing obstetrics.
(q) Being unable to practice chiropractic medicine with reasonable skill and safety to patients by reason of illness or use of alcohol, drugs, narcotics, chemicals, or any other type of material or as a result of any mental or physical condition. In enforcing this paragraph, upon a finding by the State Surgeon General, or his or her designee, or the probable cause panel of the board that probable cause exists to believe that the licensee is unable to practice the profession because of reasons stated in this paragraph, the department shall have the authority to compel a licensee to submit to a mental or physical examination by a physician designated by the department. If the licensee refuses to comply with the department’s order, the department may file a petition for enforcement in the circuit court of the circuit in which the licensee resides or does business. The department shall be entitled to the summary procedure provided in s. 51.011. The record of proceedings to obtain a compelled mental or physical examination shall not be used against a licensee in any other proceedings. A chiropractic physician affected under this paragraph shall at reasonable intervals be afforded an opportunity to demonstrate that she or he can resume the competent practice of chiropractic medicine with reasonable skill and safety to patients.
(r) Gross or repeated malpractice or the failure to practice chiropractic medicine at a level of care, skill, and treatment which is recognized by a reasonably prudent chiropractic physician as being acceptable under similar conditions and circumstances. The board shall give great weight to the standards for malpractice in s. 766.102 in interpreting this provision. A recommended order by an administrative law judge, or a final order of the board finding a violation under this section shall specify whether the licensee was found to have committed “gross malpractice,” “repeated malpractice,” or “failure to practice chiropractic medicine with that level of care, skill, and treatment which is recognized as being acceptable under similar conditions and circumstances” or any combination thereof, and any publication by the board shall so specify.
(s) Performing any procedure or prescribing any therapy which, by the prevailing standards of chiropractic medical practice in the community, would constitute experimentation on human subjects, without first obtaining full, informed, and written consent.
(t) Practicing or offering to practice beyond the scope permitted by law or accepting and performing professional responsibilities which the licensee knows or has reason to know that she or he is not competent to perform.
(u) Delegating professional responsibilities to a person when the licensee delegating such responsibilities knows or has reason to know that such person is not qualified by training, experience, or licensure to perform them.
(v) Violating a lawful order of the board or department previously entered in a disciplinary hearing or failing to comply with a lawfully issued subpoena of the department.
(w) Conspiring with another licensee or with any other person to commit an act, or committing an act, which would tend to coerce, intimidate, or preclude another licensee from lawfully advertising her or his services.
(x) Submitting to any third-party payor a claim for a service or treatment which was not actually provided to a patient.
(y) Failing to preserve identity of funds and property of a patient, the value of which is greater than $501. As provided by rule of the board, money or other property entrusted to a chiropractic physician for a specific purpose, including advances for costs and expenses of examination or treatment which may not exceed the value of $1,500, is to be held in trust and must be applied only to that purpose. Money and other property of patients coming into the hands of a chiropractic physician are not subject to counterclaim or setoff for chiropractic physician’s fees, and a refusal to account for and deliver over such money and property upon demand shall be deemed a conversion. This is not to preclude the retention of money or other property upon which the chiropractic physician has a valid lien for services or to preclude the payment of agreed fees from the proceeds of transactions for examinations or treatments. Controversies as to the amount of the fees are not grounds for disciplinary proceedings unless the amount demanded is clearly excessive or extortionate, or the demand is fraudulent. All funds of patients paid to a chiropractic physician, other than advances for costs and expenses, shall be deposited into one or more identifiable bank accounts maintained in the state in which the chiropractic physician’s office is situated, and funds belonging to the chiropractic physician may not be deposited therein except as follows:
1. Funds reasonably sufficient to pay bank charges may be deposited therein.
2. Funds belonging in part to a patient and in part presently or potentially to the physician must be deposited therein, but the portion belonging to the physician may be withdrawn when due unless the right of the physician to receive it is disputed by the patient, in which event the disputed portion may not be withdrawn until the dispute is finally resolved.

Every chiropractic physician shall maintain complete records of all funds, securities, and other properties of a patient coming into the possession of the physician and render appropriate accounts to the patient regarding them. In addition, every chiropractic physician shall promptly pay or deliver to the patient, as requested by the patient, the funds, securities, or other properties in the possession of the physician which the patient is entitled to receive.

(z) Offering to accept or accepting payment for services rendered by assignment from any third-party payor after offering to accept or accepting whatever the third-party payor covers as payment in full, if the effect of the offering or acceptance is to eliminate or give the impression of eliminating the need for payment by an insured of any required deductions applicable in the policy of the insured.
(aa) Failing to provide, upon request of the insured, a copy of a claim submitted to any third-party payor for service or treatment of the insured.
(bb) Advertising a fee or charge for a service or treatment which is different from the fee or charge the licensee submits to third-party payors for that service or treatment.
(cc) Advertising any reduced or discounted fees for services or treatments, or advertising any free services or treatments, without prominently stating in the advertisement the usual fee of the licensee for the service or treatment which is the subject of the discount, rebate, or free offering.
(dd) Using acupuncture without being certified pursuant to s. 460.403(9)(f).
(ee) Failing to report to the department any licensee under chapter 458 or under chapter 459 who the chiropractic physician or chiropractic physician’s assistant knows has violated the grounds for disciplinary action set out in the law under which that person is licensed and who provides health care services in a facility licensed under chapter 395, or a health maintenance organization certificated under part I of chapter 641, in which the chiropractic physician or chiropractic physician’s assistant also provides services.
(ff) Violating any provision of this chapter or chapter 456, or any rules adopted pursuant thereto.
(2) The board may enter an order denying licensure or imposing any of the penalties in s. 456.072(2) against any applicant for licensure or licensee who is found guilty of violating any provision of subsection (1) of this section or who is found guilty of violating any provision of s. 456.072(1). In determining what action is appropriate, the board must first consider what sanctions are necessary to protect the public or to compensate the patient. Only after those sanctions have been imposed may the disciplining authority consider and include in the order requirements designed to rehabilitate the chiropractic physician. All costs associated with compliance with orders issued under this subsection are the obligation of the chiropractic physician.
(3) The department shall not reinstate the license of a chiropractic physician, or cause a license to be issued to a person the board has deemed unqualified, until such time as the board is satisfied that she or he has complied with all the terms and conditions set forth in the final order and that such person is capable of safely engaging in the practice of chiropractic medicine.
(4) The board shall by rule establish guidelines for the disposition of disciplinary cases involving specific types of violations. Such guidelines may include minimum and maximum fines, periods of supervision or probation, or conditions of probation or reissuance of a license. “Gross malpractice,” “repeated malpractice,” and “failure to practice chiropractic medicine with that level of care, skill, and treatment which is recognized as being acceptable under similar circumstances” under paragraph (1)(r) shall each be considered distinct types of violations requiring specific individual guidelines.
(5) When an investigation of a chiropractic physician is undertaken, the department shall promptly furnish to the chiropractic physician or her or his attorney a copy of the complaint or document which resulted in the initiation of the investigation. The chiropractic physician may submit a written response to the information contained in such complaint or document within 45 days after service to the chiropractic physician of the complaint or document. The chiropractic physician’s written response shall be considered by the probable cause panel.
(6) In any administrative action against a chiropractic physician which does not involve revocation or suspension of license, the department shall have the burden, by the greater weight of the evidence, to establish the existence of grounds for disciplinary action. The department shall establish grounds for revocation or suspension of license by clear and convincing evidence.
(7) If any chiropractic physician is guilty of such unprofessional conduct, negligence, or mental or physical incapacity or impairment that the department determines that the chiropractic physician is unable to practice with reasonable skill and safety and presents a danger to patients, the department shall be authorized to maintain an action in circuit court enjoining such chiropractic physician from providing medical services to the public until the chiropractic physician demonstrates the ability to practice with reasonable skill and safety and without danger to patients.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; s. 312, ch. 81-259; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; s. 1, ch. 83-107; s. 22, ch. 83-329; ss. 13, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 38, ch. 88-1; s. 17, ch. 88-277; s. 4, ch. 90-44; s. 1, ch. 90-79; ss. 45, 46, ch. 90-228; s. 64, ch. 91-220; s. 4, ch. 91-429; ss. 41, 93, ch. 92-149; s. 3, ch. 92-178; s. 30, ch. 95-144; ss. 6, 7, ch. 96-296; s. 222, ch. 96-410; s. 1103, ch. 97-103; s. 3, ch. 97-247; s. 68, ch. 97-264; s. 278, ch. 98-166; s. 107, ch. 99-397; s. 27, ch. 2001-277; s. 5, ch. 2005-240; s. 79, ch. 2008-6; s. 4, ch. 2012-171; s. 10, ch. 2017-41.
460.414 Chiropractic physicians subject to state and municipal rules and regulations.All licensed chiropractic physicians shall observe and be subject to all state and municipal rules and regulations relating to the control of contagious and infectious diseases, sign death certificates in accordance with chapter 382, and comply with all laws pertaining to public health, reporting to the proper authority as other practitioners are required to do.
History.ss. 1, 7, ch. 79-211; ss. 2, 3, ch. 81-318; ss. 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 112, ch. 97-237.
460.4165 Certified chiropractic physician’s assistants.
(1) LEGISLATIVE INTENT.The purpose of this section is to encourage the more effective utilization of the skills of chiropractic physicians by enabling them to delegate health care tasks to qualified assistants when such delegation is consistent with the patient’s health and welfare and to allow for innovative development of programs for the education of physician’s assistants.
(2) PERFORMANCE BY CERTIFIED CHIROPRACTIC PHYSICIAN’S ASSISTANT.Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant may perform chiropractic services in the specialty area or areas for which the certified chiropractic physician’s assistant is trained or experienced when such services are rendered under the supervision of a licensed chiropractic physician or group of chiropractic physicians certified by the board. Any certified chiropractic physician’s assistant certified under this section to perform services may perform those services only:
(a) In the office of the chiropractic physician to whom the certified chiropractic physician’s assistant has been assigned, in which office such physician maintains her or his primary practice;
(b) Under indirect supervision if the indirect supervision occurs at the supervising chiropractic physician’s address of record required by s. 456.035, other than at a clinic licensed under part X of chapter 400, of the chiropractic physician to whom she or he is assigned as defined by rule of the board;
(c) In a hospital in which the chiropractic physician to whom she or he is assigned is a member of the staff; or
(d) On calls outside the office of the chiropractic physician to whom she or he is assigned, on the direct order of the chiropractic physician to whom she or he is assigned.
(3) THIRD-PARTY PAYOR.This chapter does not prevent third-party payors from reimbursing employers of chiropractic physician’s assistants for covered services rendered by certified chiropractic physician’s assistants.
(4) PERFORMANCE BY TRAINEES.Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a trainee may perform chiropractic services when such services are rendered within the scope of an approved program.
(5) PROGRAM APPROVAL.The department shall issue certificates of approval for programs for the education and training of certified chiropractic physician’s assistants which meet board standards. Any basic program curriculum certified by the board must consist of a curriculum of at least 200 didactic classroom hours.
(a) In developing criteria for program approval, the board shall give consideration to, and encourage, the use of equivalency and proficiency testing and other mechanisms whereby full credit is given to trainees for past education and experience in health fields.
(b) The board shall create groups of specialty classifications of training for certified chiropractic physician’s assistants. These classifications must reflect the training and experience of the certified chiropractic physician’s assistant. The certified chiropractic physician’s assistant may receive training in one or more such classifications, which shall be shown on the certificate issued.
(c) The board shall adopt and publish standards to ensure that such programs operate in a manner that does not endanger the health and welfare of the patients who receive services within the scope of the program. The board shall review the quality of the curricula, faculties, and facilities of such programs; issue certificates of approval; and take whatever other action is necessary to determine that the purposes of this section are being met.
(6) APPLICATION APPROVAL.Any person desiring to be licensed as a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant must apply to the department. The application shall include a work-arrangement proposal and, as part of the application process, the board shall interview the proposed supervising chiropractic physician, whose license must not be encumbered or restricted, and the applicant to determine whether the work-arrangement proposal provides for responsible supervision, as a condition of certification and approval of any subsequent changes in the supervising physician. The department shall issue a certificate to any person certified by the board as having met the following requirements:
(a) Is at least 18 years of age.
(b) Is a graduate of an approved program or its equivalent and is fully certified by reason of experience and education, as defined by board rule, to perform chiropractic services under the responsible supervision of a licensed chiropractic physician and when the board is satisfied that the public will be adequately protected by the arrangement proposed in the application.
(c) Has completed the application form and remitted an application fee set by the board pursuant to this section. An application for certification made by a chiropractic physician’s assistant must include:
1. A certificate of completion of a physician’s assistant training program specified in subsection (5).
2. A sworn statement of any prior felony conviction in any jurisdiction.
3. A sworn statement of any previous revocation or denial of licensure or certification in any state or jurisdiction.
(7) PENALTY.Any person who has not been certified by the board and approved by the department and who represents herself or himself as a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant or who uses any other term in indicating or implying that she or he is a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.084 or by a fine not exceeding $5,000.
(8) REVOCATION OF APPROVAL.The certificate of approval to supervise a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant held by any chiropractic physician or group of chiropractic physicians may be revoked when the board determines that the intent of this section is not being carried out.
(9) FEES.
(a) A fee not to exceed $100 set by the board shall accompany the application by a chiropractic physician for authorization to supervise a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant.
(b) Upon approval of an application for certification of a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant in a specialty area, the applicant shall be charged an initial certification fee for the first biennium not to exceed $250; and a biennial renewal fee not to exceed $250 shall accompany each application for renewal of the certified chiropractic physician’s assistant certificate.
(10) EXISTING PROGRAMS.Nothing in this section shall be construed to eliminate or supersede existing laws relating to other paramedical professions or services. It is the intent of this section to supplement all such existing programs relating to the certification and the practice of paramedical professions as may be authorized by law.
(11) LIABILITY.Each chiropractic physician or group of chiropractic physicians utilizing certified chiropractic physician’s assistants shall be liable for any act or omission of any physician’s assistant acting under her or his or its supervision and control.
(12) SUPERVISION OF REGISTERED CHIROPRACTIC ASSISTANT.A certified chiropractic physician’s assistant may directly supervise a registered chiropractic assistant and other persons who are not licensed as chiropractic physicians who are employed or supervised by the chiropractic physician to whom the certified chiropractic physician’s assistant is assigned.
(13) CERTIFIED CHIROPRACTIC ASSISTANT CERTIFICATION RENEWAL.The certification must be renewed biennially.
(a) Each renewal must include:
1. A renewal fee as set by the board pursuant to this section.
2. A sworn statement of no felony convictions in the previous 2 years in any jurisdiction.
(b) Each certified chiropractic physician’s assistant shall biennially complete 24 hours of continuing education courses sponsored by chiropractic colleges accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education and approved by the board. The board shall approve those courses that build upon the basic courses required for the practice of chiropractic medicine, and the board may also approve courses in adjunctive modalities. The board may make exception from the requirements of this section in emergency or hardship cases. The board may adopt rules within the requirements of this section which are necessary for its implementation.
(c) Upon employment as a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant, a certified chiropractic physician’s assistant must notify the department in writing within 30 days after such employment or any change of the supervising chiropractic physician. The notification must include the full name, Florida chiropractic medical license number, specialty, and address of the supervising chiropractic physician.
(14) SUPERVISION OF CERTIFIED CHIROPRACTIC PHYSICIAN’S ASSISTANTS AT LICENSED CLINICS.A certified chiropractic physician’s assistant certified under this section to perform services at a clinic licensed under part X of chapter 400 may perform those services only under direct supervision of the chiropractic physician to whom she or he is assigned.
History.ss. 1, 2, ch. 80-393; s. 2, ch. 81-318; s. 86, ch. 83-218; ss. 14, 17, 18, ch. 86-285; s. 32, ch. 89-162; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 220, ch. 97-103; s. 72, ch. 97-264; s. 108, ch. 99-397; s. 3, ch. 2007-240; s. 5, ch. 2012-171.
460.4166 Registered chiropractic assistants.
(1) DEFINITION.As used in this section, “registered chiropractic assistant” means a professional, multiskilled person dedicated to assisting in all aspects of chiropractic medical practice under the direct supervision and responsibility of a chiropractic physician or certified chiropractic physician’s assistant. A registered chiropractic assistant assists with patient care management, executes administrative and clinical procedures, and often performs managerial and supervisory functions. Competence in the field also requires that a registered chiropractic assistant adhere to ethical and legal standards of professional practice, recognize and respond to emergencies, and demonstrate professional characteristics.
(2) DUTIES.Under the direct supervision and responsibility of a licensed chiropractic physician or certified chiropractic physician’s assistant, a registered chiropractic assistant may:
(a) Perform clinical procedures, which include:
1. Preparing patients for the chiropractic physician’s care.
2. Taking vital signs.
3. Observing and reporting patients’ signs or symptoms.
(b) Administer basic first aid.
(c) Assist with patient examinations or treatments other than manipulations or adjustments.
(d) Operate office equipment.
(e) Collect routine laboratory specimens as directed by the chiropractic physician or certified chiropractic physician’s assistant.
(f) Administer nutritional supplements as directed by the chiropractic physician or certified chiropractic physician’s assistant.
(g) Perform office procedures required by the chiropractic physician or certified chiropractic physician’s assistant under direct supervision of the chiropractic physician or certified chiropractic physician’s assistant.
(3) REGISTRATION.Registered chiropractic assistants may be registered by the board for a biennial fee not to exceed $25.
History.s. 9, ch. 96-296; s. 279, ch. 98-166; s. 110, ch. 99-397.
460.4167 Proprietorship by persons other than licensed chiropractic physicians.
(1) A person may not employ a chiropractic physician licensed under this chapter or engage a chiropractic physician licensed under this chapter as an independent contractor to provide services that chiropractic physicians are authorized to offer under this chapter, unless the person is any of the following:
(a) A sole proprietorship, group practice, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, limited partnership, professional association, or any other entity that is wholly owned by:
1. One or more chiropractic physicians licensed under this chapter;
2. A chiropractic physician licensed under this chapter and the spouse or surviving spouse, parent, child, or sibling of the chiropractic physician; or
3. A trust whose trustees are chiropractic physicians licensed under this chapter and the spouse, parent, child, or sibling of a chiropractic physician.

If the chiropractic physician described in subparagraph 2. dies, notwithstanding part X of chapter 400, the surviving spouse or adult children may hold, operate, pledge, sell, mortgage, assign, transfer, own, or control the chiropractic physician’s ownership interests for so long as the surviving spouse or adult children remain the sole proprietors of the chiropractic practice.

(b) A sole proprietorship, group practice, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, limited partnership, professional association, or any other entity that is wholly owned by a physician or physicians licensed under this chapter, chapter 458, chapter 459, or chapter 461.
(c) An entity that is wholly owned, directly or indirectly, by an entity licensed or registered by the state under chapter 395.
(d) A clinical facility that is affiliated with a college of chiropractic accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education at which training is provided for chiropractic students.
(e) A public or private university or college.
(f) An entity wholly owned and operated by an organization that is exempt from federal taxation under s. 501(c)(3) or (4) of the Internal Revenue Code, a community college or university clinic, or an entity owned or operated by the Federal Government or by state government, including any agency, county, municipality, or other political subdivision thereof.
(g) An entity owned by a corporation the stock of which is publicly traded.
(h) A clinic licensed under part X of chapter 400 which provides chiropractic services by a chiropractic physician licensed under this chapter and other health care services by physicians licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459, the medical director of which is licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459.
(i) A state-licensed insurer.
(j) A health maintenance organization or prepaid health clinic regulated under chapter 641.
(2) A person other than a chiropractic physician licensed under this chapter may not direct, control, or interfere with a chiropractic physician’s clinical judgment regarding the medical necessity of chiropractic treatment. For purposes of this subsection, a chiropractic physician’s clinical judgment does not apply to chiropractic services that are contractually excluded, the application of alternative services that may be appropriate given the chiropractic physician’s prescribed course of treatment, or determinations that compare contractual provisions and scope of coverage with a chiropractic physician’s prescribed treatment on behalf of a covered person by an insurer, health maintenance organization, or prepaid limited health service organization.
(3) Any lease agreement, rental agreement, or other arrangement between a person other than a licensed chiropractic physician and a chiropractic physician whereby the person other than a licensed chiropractic physician provides the chiropractic physician with chiropractic equipment or chiropractic materials must contain a provision whereby the chiropractic physician expressly maintains complete care, custody, and control of the equipment or practice.
(4) The purpose of this section is to prevent a person other than the licensed chiropractic physician from influencing or otherwise interfering with the exercise of the chiropractic physician’s independent professional judgment. In addition to the acts specified in subsection (2), a person or entity other than an employer or entity authorized in subsection (1) may not employ or engage a chiropractic physician licensed under this chapter. A person or entity may not enter into a contract or arrangement with a chiropractic physician pursuant to which such person or entity exercises control over the following:
(a) The selection of a course of treatment for a patient, the procedures or materials to be used as part of the course of treatment, and the manner in which the course of treatment is carried out by the chiropractic physician;
(b) The patient records of the chiropractic physician;
(c) The policies and decisions relating to pricing, credit, refunds, warranties, and advertising; or
(d) The decisions relating to office personnel and hours of practice.

However, a person or entity that is authorized to employ a chiropractic physician under subsection (1) may exercise control over the patient records of the employed chiropractic physician; the policies and decisions relating to pricing, credit, refunds, warranties, and advertising; and the decisions relating to office personnel and hours of practice.

(5) Any person who violates this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
(6) Any contract or arrangement entered into or undertaken in violation of this section is void as contrary to public policy.
History.s. 4, ch. 2007-240; s. 6, ch. 2012-171.