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2014 Florida Statutes

F.S. 733.817
733.817 Apportionment of estate taxes.
(1) For purposes of this section:
(a) “Fiduciary” means a person other than the personal representative in possession of property included in the measure of the tax who is liable to the applicable taxing authority for payment of the entire tax to the extent of the value of the property in possession.
(b) “Governing instrument” means a will, trust agreement, or any other document that controls the transfer of an asset on the occurrence of the event with respect to which the tax is being levied.
(c) “Gross estate” means the gross estate, as determined by the Internal Revenue Code with respect to the federal estate tax and the Florida estate tax, and as that concept is otherwise determined by the estate, inheritance, or death tax laws of the particular state, country, or political subdivision whose tax is being apportioned.
(d) “Included in the measure of the tax” means that for each separate tax that an interest may incur, only interests included in the measure of that particular tax are considered. The term “included in the measure of the tax” does not include any interest, whether passing under the will or not, to the extent the interest is initially deductible from the gross estate, without regard to any subsequent reduction of the deduction by reason of the charge of any part of the applicable tax to the interest. The term “included in the measure of the tax” does not include interests or amounts that are not included in the gross estate but are included in the amount upon which the applicable tax is computed, such as adjusted taxable gifts with respect to the federal estate tax. If an election is required for deductibility, an interest is not “initially deductible” unless the election for deductibility is allowed.
(e) “Internal Revenue Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time.
(f) “Net tax” means the net tax payable to the particular state, country, or political subdivision whose tax is being apportioned, after taking into account all credits against the applicable tax except as provided in this section. With respect to the federal estate tax, “net tax” is determined after taking into account all credits against the tax except for the credit for foreign death taxes.
(g) “Nonresiduary devise” means any devise that is not a residuary devise.
(h) “Nonresiduary interest” in connection with a trust means any interest in a trust which is not a residuary interest.
(i) “Recipient” means, with respect to property or an interest in property included in the gross estate, an heir at law in an intestate estate, devisee in a testate estate, beneficiary of a trust, beneficiary of an insurance policy, annuity, or other contractual right, surviving tenant, taker as a result of the exercise or in default of the exercise of a general power of appointment, person who receives or is to receive the property or an interest in the property, or person in possession of the property, other than a creditor.
(j) “Residuary devise” has the meaning set forth in s. 731.201.
(k) “Residuary interest,” in connection with a trust, means an interest in the assets of a trust which remain after provision for any distribution that is to be satisfied by reference to a specific property or type of property, fund, sum, or statutory amount.
(l) “Revocable trust” means a trust as described in s. 733.707(3).
(m) “State” means any state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
(n) “Tax” means any estate tax, inheritance tax, generation skipping transfer tax, or other tax levied or assessed under the laws of this or any other state, the United States, any other country, or any political subdivision of the foregoing, as finally determined, which is imposed as a result of the death of the decedent, including, without limitation, the tax assessed pursuant to s. 4980A of the Internal Revenue Code. The term also includes any interest and penalties imposed in addition to the tax. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the term “tax” means each separate tax.
(o) “Temporary interest” means an interest in income or an estate for a specific period of time or for life or for some other period controlled by reference to extrinsic events, whether or not in trust.
(p) “Tentative Florida tax” with respect to any property means the net Florida estate tax that would have been attributable to that property if no tax were payable to any other state in respect of that property.
(q) “Value” means the pecuniary worth of the interest involved as finally determined for purposes of the applicable tax after deducting any debt, expense, or other deduction chargeable to it for which a deduction was allowed in determining the amount of the applicable tax. A lien or other encumbrance is not regarded as chargeable to a particular interest to the extent that it will be paid from other interests. The value of an interest shall not be reduced by reason of the charge against it of any part of the tax.
(2) An interest in protected homestead shall be exempt from the apportionment of taxes.
(3) The net tax attributable to the interests included in the measure of each tax shall be determined by the proportion that the value of each interest included in the measure of the tax bears to the total value of all interests included in the measure of the tax. Notwithstanding the foregoing:
(a) The net tax attributable to interests included in the measure of the tax by reason of s. 2044 of the Internal Revenue Code shall be determined in the manner provided for the federal estate tax in s. 2207A of the Internal Revenue Code, and the amount so determined shall be deducted from the tax to determine the net tax attributable to all remaining interests included in the measure of the tax.
(b) The foreign tax credit allowed with respect to the federal estate tax shall be allocated among the recipients of interests finally charged with the payment of the foreign tax in reduction of any federal estate tax chargeable to the recipients of the foreign interests, whether or not any federal estate tax is attributable to the foreign interests. Any excess of the foreign tax credit shall be applied to reduce proportionately the net amount of federal estate tax chargeable to the remaining recipients of the interests included in the measure of the federal estate tax.
(c) The reduction in the Florida tax on the estate of a Florida resident for tax paid to other states shall be allocated as follows:
1. If the net tax paid to another state is greater than or equal to the tentative Florida tax attributable to the property subject to tax in the other state, none of the Florida tax shall be attributable to that property.
2. If the net tax paid to another state is less than the tentative Florida tax attributable to the property subject to tax in the other state, the net Florida tax attributable to the property subject to tax in the other state shall be the excess of the amount of the tentative Florida tax attributable to the property over the net tax payable to the other state with respect to the property.
3. Any remaining net Florida tax shall be attributable to property included in the measure of the Florida tax exclusive of property subject to tax in other states.
4. The net federal tax attributable to the property subject to tax in the other state shall be determined as if it were located in the state.
(d) The net tax attributable to a temporary interest, if any, shall be regarded as attributable to the principal that supports the temporary interest.
(4)(a) Except as otherwise effectively directed by the governing instrument, if the Internal Revenue Code, including, but not limited to, ss. 2032A(c)(5), 2206, 2207, 2207A, 2207B, and 2603, applies to apportion federal tax against recipients of certain interests, all net taxes, including taxes levied by the state attributable to each type of interest, shall be apportioned against the recipients of all interests of that type in the proportion that the value of each interest of that type included in the measure of the tax bears to the total of all interests of that type included in the measure of the tax.
(b) The provisions of this subsection do not affect allocation of the reduction in the Florida tax as provided in this section with respect to estates of Florida residents which are also subject to tax in other states.
(5) Except as provided above or as otherwise directed by the governing instrument, the net tax attributable to each interest shall be apportioned as follows:
(a) For property passing under the decedent’s will:
1. The net tax attributable to nonresiduary devises shall be charged to and paid from the residuary estate whether or not all interests in the residuary estate are included in the measure of the tax. If the residuary estate is insufficient to pay the net tax attributable to all nonresiduary devises, the balance of the net tax attributable to nonresiduary devises shall be apportioned among the recipients of the nonresiduary devises in the proportion that the value of each nonresiduary devise included in the measure of the tax bears to the total of all nonresiduary devises included in the measure of the tax.
2. The net tax attributable to residuary devises shall be apportioned among the recipients of the residuary devises included in the measure of tax in the proportion that the value of each residuary devise included in the measure of the tax bears to the total of all residuary devises included in the measure of the tax.
(b) For property passing under the terms of any trust other than a trust created in the decedent’s will:
1. The net tax attributable to nonresiduary interests shall be charged to and paid from the residuary portion of the trust, whether or not all interests in the residuary portion are included in the measure of the tax. If the residuary portion of the trust is insufficient to pay the net tax attributable to all nonresiduary interests, the balance of the net tax attributable to nonresiduary interests shall be apportioned among the recipients of the nonresiduary interests in the proportion that the value of each nonresiduary interest included in the measure of the tax bears to the total of all nonresiduary interests included in the measure of the tax.
2. The net tax attributable to residuary interests shall be apportioned among the recipients of the residuary interests included in the measure of the tax in the proportion that the value of each residuary interest included in the measure of the tax bears to the total of all residuary interests included in the measure of the tax.
(c) The net tax attributable to an interest in protected homestead shall be apportioned against the recipients of other interests in the estate or passing under any revocable trust in the following order:
1. Class I: Recipients of interests not disposed of by the decedent’s will or revocable trust that are included in the measure of the federal estate tax.
2. Class II: Recipients of residuary devises and residuary interests that are included in the measure of the federal estate tax.
3. Class III: Recipients of nonresiduary devises and nonresiduary interests that are included in the measure of the federal estate tax.

The net tax apportioned to a class, if any, pursuant to this paragraph shall be apportioned among the recipients in the class in the proportion that the value of the interest of each bears to the total value of all interests included in that class.

(d) In the application of this subsection, paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) shall be applied to apportion the net tax to the recipients of the estate and the recipients of the decedent’s revocable trust as if all recipients, other than the estate or trusts themselves, were taking under a common instrument.
(e) The net tax imposed under s. 4980A of the Internal Revenue Code shall be apportioned among the recipients of the interests included in the measure of that tax in the proportion that the value of the interest of each bears to the total value of all interests included in the measure of that tax.
(f) The net tax that is not apportioned under paragraphs (a), (b), and (c), including, but not limited to, the net tax attributable to interests passing by intestacy, jointly held interests passing by survivorship, insurance, properties in which the decedent held a reversionary or revocable interest, and annuities, shall be apportioned among the recipients of the remaining interests that are included in the measure of the tax in the proportion that the value of each such interest bears to the total value of all the remaining interests included in the measure of the tax.
(g) If the court finds that it is inequitable to apportion interest, penalties, or both, in the manner provided in paragraphs (a)-(f), the court may assess liability for the payment thereof in the manner it finds equitable.
(h)1. To be effective as a direction for payment of tax in a manner different from that provided in this section, the governing instrument must direct that the tax be paid from assets that pass pursuant to that governing instrument, except as provided in this section.
2. If the decedent’s will provides that the tax shall be apportioned as provided in the decedent’s revocable trust by specific reference to the trust, the direction in the revocable trust shall be deemed to be a direction contained in the will and shall control with respect to payment of taxes from assets passing under both the will and the revocable trust.
3. A direction in the decedent’s will to pay tax from the decedent’s revocable trust is effective if a contrary direction is not contained in the trust agreement.
4. For a direction in a governing instrument to be effective to direct payment of taxes attributable to property not passing under the governing instrument from property passing under the governing instrument, the governing instrument must expressly refer to this section, or expressly indicate that the property passing under the governing instrument is to bear the burden of taxation for property not passing under the governing instrument. A direction in the governing instrument to the effect that all taxes are to be paid from property passing under the governing instrument whether attributable to property passing under the governing instrument or otherwise shall be effective to direct the payment from property passing under the governing instrument of taxes attributable to property not passing under the governing instrument.
5. If there is a conflict as to payment of taxes between the decedent’s will and the governing instrument, the decedent’s will controls, except as follows:
a. The governing instrument shall be given effect with respect to any tax remaining unpaid after the application of the decedent’s will.
b. A direction in a governing instrument to pay the tax attributable to assets that pass pursuant to the governing instrument from assets that pass pursuant to that governing instrument shall be effective notwithstanding any conflict with the decedent’s will, unless the tax provision in the decedent’s will expressly overrides the conflicting provision in the governing instrument.
(6) The personal representative or fiduciary shall not be required to transfer to a recipient any property reasonably anticipated to be necessary for the payment of taxes. Further, the personal representative or fiduciary shall not be required to transfer any property to the recipient until the amount of the tax due from the recipient is paid by the recipient. If property is transferred before final apportionment of the tax, the recipient shall provide a bond or other security for his or her apportioned liability in the amount and form prescribed by the personal representative or fiduciary.
(7)(a) The personal representative may petition at any time for an order of apportionment. If no administration has been commenced at any time after 90 days from the decedent’s death, any fiduciary may petition for an order of apportionment in the court in which venue would be proper for administration of the decedent’s estate. Formal notice of the petition for order of apportionment shall be given to all interested persons. At any time after 6 months from the decedent’s death, any recipient may petition the court for an order of apportionment.
(b) The court shall determine all issues concerning apportionment. If the tax to be apportioned has not been finally determined, the court shall determine the probable tax due or to become due from all interested persons, apportion the probable tax, and retain jurisdiction over the parties and issues to modify the order of apportionment as appropriate until after the tax is finally determined.
(8)(a) If the personal representative or fiduciary does not have possession of sufficient property otherwise distributable to the recipient to pay the tax apportioned to the recipient, whether under this section, the Internal Revenue Code, or the governing instrument, if applicable, the personal representative or fiduciary shall recover the deficiency in tax so apportioned to the recipient:
1. From the fiduciary in possession of the property to which the tax is apportioned, if any; and
2. To the extent of any deficiency in collection from the fiduciary, or to the extent collection from the fiduciary is excused pursuant to subsection (9) and in all other cases, from the recipient of the property to which the tax is apportioned, unless relieved of this duty as provided in subsection (9).
(b) In any action to recover the tax apportioned, the order of apportionment shall be prima facie correct.
(c) In any action for the enforcement of an order of apportionment, the court shall award taxable costs as in chancery actions, including reasonable attorney’s fees, and may award penalties and interest on the unpaid tax in accordance with equitable principles.
(d) This subsection shall not authorize the recovery of any tax from any company issuing insurance included in the gross estate, or from any bank, trust company, savings and loan association, or similar institution with respect to any account in the name of the decedent and any other person which passed by operation of law on the decedent’s death.
(9)(a) A personal representative or fiduciary who has the duty under this section of collecting the apportioned tax from recipients may be relieved of the duty to collect the tax by an order of the court finding:
1. That the estimated court costs and attorney’s fees in collecting the apportioned tax from a person against whom the tax has been apportioned will approximate or exceed the amount of the recovery;
2. That the person against whom the tax has been apportioned is a resident of a foreign country other than Canada and refuses to pay the apportioned tax on demand; or
3. That it is impracticable to enforce contribution of the apportioned tax against a person against whom the tax has been apportioned in view of the improbability of obtaining a judgment or the improbability of collection under any judgment that might be obtained, or otherwise.
(b) A personal representative or fiduciary shall not be liable for failure to attempt to enforce collection if the personal representative or fiduciary reasonably believes it would have been economically impracticable.
(10) Any apportioned tax that is not collected shall be reapportioned in accordance with this section as if the portion of the property to which the uncollected tax had been apportioned had been exempt.
(11) Nothing in this section shall limit the right of any person who has paid more than the amount of the tax apportionable to that person, calculated as if all apportioned amounts would be collected, to obtain contribution from those who have not paid the full amount of the tax apportionable to them, calculated as if all apportioned amounts would be collected, and that right is hereby conferred. In any action to enforce contribution, the court shall award taxable costs as in chancery actions, including reasonable attorney’s fees.
(12) Nothing herein contained shall be construed to require the personal representative or fiduciary to pay any tax levied or assessed by any foreign country, unless specific directions to that effect are contained in the will or other instrument under which the personal representative or fiduciary is acting.
History.s. 1, ch. 74-106; s. 95, ch. 75-220; s. 41, ch. 77-87; s. 273, ch. 79-400; s. 20, ch. 92-200; s. 1026, ch. 97-102; s. 9, ch. 97-240; s. 13, ch. 2000-159; s. 167, ch. 2001-226; s. 39, ch. 2006-217; s. 122, ch. 2010-5.
Note.Created from former s. 734.041.