STATE HIGHWAY SYSTEM
335.01 Designation and systemization of public roads.
335.02 Authority to designate transportation facilities and rights-of-way and establish lanes; procedure for redesignation and relocation; application of local regulations.
335.0415 Public road jurisdiction and transfer process.
335.055 Routine maintenance contracts.
335.06 Access roads to the state park system.
335.064 Pedestrian walkways and fishing walks or bays; authority to construct.
335.065 Bicycle and pedestrian ways along state roads and transportation facilities.
335.066 Safe Paths to Schools Program.
335.067 Conserve by Bicycle Program.
335.07 Sufficiency rating system for roads on State Highway System.
335.074 Safety inspection of bridges.
335.08 Numbering public roads.
335.09 Uniform erection and maintenance of traffic control devices.
335.091 Blue Star Memorial Highway designation.
335.092 Everglades Parkway scenic highway.
335.093 Scenic highway designation.
335.10 State Highway System; vehicle regulation; prohibited use and traffic; liability for damage.
335.14 Traffic control devices on State Highway System or State Park Road System; exemption for computerized traffic systems and control devices.
335.141 Regulation of public railroad-highway grade crossings; reduction of hazards.
335.15 Detour roads.
335.16 Wayside parks and access roads to public waters.
335.167 State highway construction and maintenance; Florida-friendly landscaping.
335.17 State highway construction; means of noise abatement.
335.18 Short title.
335.181 Regulation of access to State Highway System; legislative findings, policy, and purpose.
335.182 Regulation of connections to roads on State Highway System; definitions.
335.1825 Access permit required; authority to close unpermitted connections.
335.183 Permit application fee.
335.184 Access permit review process by the department; permit denial; justification; administrative review.
335.185 Permit conditions; expiration.
335.187 Unpermitted connections; existing access permits; nonconforming permits; modification and revocation of permits.
335.188 Access management standards; access control classification system; criteria.
335.199 Transportation projects modifying access to adjacent property.
335.01 Designation and systemization of public roads.—
(1) All roads which are open and available for use by the public and dedicated to the public use, according to law or by prescription, are hereby declared to be, and are established as, public roads.
(2) Public roads shall be divided into four systems:
(a) The State Highway System;
(b) The State Park Road System;
(c) The county road system; and
(d) The city street system.
History.—s. 25, ch. 29965, 1955; s. 6, ch. 77-165; s. 31, ch. 84-309.
335.02 Authority to designate transportation facilities and rights-of-way and establish lanes; procedure for redesignation and relocation; application of local regulations.—
(1) The department shall have the authority to locate and designate certain transportation facilities as part of the State Highway System and to construct and maintain them with funds available to the department. Any transportation facility when so located and designated shall become the property of the state and shall be under the jurisdiction and control of the department. Such a transportation facility may not be redesignated or relocated until after a public hearing is conducted by the department in each county affected. Reasonable notice of the hearing shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in such county 14 days prior to the hearing in addition to any other notice required by law. Any interested party shall have the opportunity to be heard either in person or by counsel and to introduce testimony in such person’s behalf at the hearing.
(2) The department may survey and locate the line or route of any existing or proposed transportation facility or section thereof designated as part of the State Highway System or the line or route of any transportation corridor designated by the department. When locating the line or route, the department shall consider the availability of property currently owned by this state. Right-of-way maps used for the acquisition of real property rights and adopted by the department shall, upon completion of monumentation, be filed in accordance with chapter 177 in the office of the clerk of the circuit court in the appropriate county.
(3) The department may establish standards for lanes on the State Highway System, including the Strategic Intermodal System highway corridors established pursuant to s. 339.65. In determining the number of lanes for any regional corridor or section of highway on the State Highway System to be funded by the department with state or federal funds, the department shall evaluate all alternatives and seek to achieve the highest degree of efficient mobility for corridor users. In conducting the analysis, the department must give consideration to the following factors consistent with sound engineering principles:
(a) Overall economic importance of the corridor as a trade or tourism corridor.
(b) Safety of corridor users, including the importance of the corridor for evacuation purposes.
(c) Cost-effectiveness of alternative methods of increasing the mobility of corridor users.
(d) Current and projected traffic volumes on the corridor.
(e) Multimodal alternatives.
(f) Use of intelligent transportation technology in increasing the efficiency of the corridor.
(g) Compliance with state and federal policies related to clean air, environmental impacts, growth management, livable communities, and energy conservation.
(h) Addition of special use lanes, such as exclusive truck lanes, high-occupancy-vehicle toll lanes, and exclusive interregional traffic lanes.
(i) Availability and cost of rights-of-way, including associated costs, and the most effective use of existing rights-of-way.
(j) Regional economic and transportation objectives, where articulated.
(k) The future land use plan element of local government comprehensive plans, as appropriate, including designated urban infill and redevelopment areas.
(l) The traffic circulation element, if applicable, of local government comprehensive plans, including designated transportation corridors and public transportation corridors.
(m) The approved metropolitan planning organization’s long-range transportation plan, as appropriate.
This subsection does not preclude a number of lanes in excess of 10 lanes, but an additional factor that must be considered before the department may determine that the number of lanes should be more than 10 is the capacity to accommodate in the future alternative forms of transportation within existing or potential rights-of-way.
(4) Notwithstanding any general law or special act, regulations of any county, municipality, or special district, including any instrumentality thereof, shall not apply to existing or future transportation facilities, or appurtenances thereto, on the State Highway System.
History.—s. 26, ch. 29965, 1955; s. 1, ch. 59-224; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1, ch. 69-188; s. 2, ch. 77-416; s. 56, ch. 78-95; s. 137, ch. 79-400; s. 32, ch. 84-309; s. 30, ch. 85-180; s. 1, ch. 85-183; s. 12, ch. 88-168; s. 22, ch. 95-257; s. 8, ch. 2000-266; s. 59, ch. 2003-286; s. 88, ch. 2012-174.
335.0415 Public road jurisdiction and transfer process.—
(1) The jurisdiction of public roads and the responsibility for operation and maintenance within the right-of-way of any road within the state, county, and municipal road system shall be that which existed on June 10, 1995.
(2) Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, any change of the jurisdiction of a public road subsequent to July 1, 1995, shall be governed by the provisions set out herein.
(3) Public roads may be transferred between jurisdictions only by mutual agreement of the affected governmental entities.
(4) Decisions to transfer public roads to or from the State Highway System which occur after July 1, 1995, shall be based upon the consideration of criteria including but not limited to the following:
(a) National defense needs;
(b) Travel to and through urban areas;
(c) Access to intermodal facilities including but not limited to airports, seaports, major terminals and transfer points;
(d) Access to regional public facilities; and
(e) Disaster preparedness and emergency evacuation.
(5) In order to take effect, all transfers of public roads to or from the State Highway System must be by mutual agreement of the affected governmental entities and approved by the secretary of the Department of Transportation.
History.—s. 34, ch. 95-257; s. 14, ch. 97-280; s. 316, ch. 99-248; s. 2, ch. 99-250; s. 16, ch. 99-385.
335.055 Routine maintenance contracts.—
(1) The Department of Transportation may enter into contracts with counties and municipalities to perform routine maintenance work on the State Highway System within the appropriate boundaries.
(2) Each county or municipality which completes the work described in subsection (1) shall be relieved from any tort liability arising after completion of such work if the completed project conforms to the standards of the contract as agreed to by the department.
(3) Each county or municipality shall be entitled to receive payment or reimbursement from the department, in accordance with the contract, if the work is completed to the standards of the contract as agreed to by the department.
(4) Nothing contained in this section shall impair, suspend, contract, enlarge, extend, or affect in any manner the powers and duties of the department.
History.—s. 1, ch. 87-164.
335.06 Access roads to the state park system.—Any road which provides access to property within the state park system shall be maintained by the department if the road is a part of the State Highway System or shall be maintained by the appropriate county or municipality if the road is a part of the county road system or the city street system.
History.—s. 30, ch. 29965, 1955; ss. 23, 25, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 37, ch. 84-309.
335.064 Pedestrian walkways and fishing walks or bays; authority to construct.—Any state, county, or municipal agency or authority charged with the maintenance and construction of public roads and bridges is authorized to construct and maintain pedestrian walkways, fishing walks, or fishing bays on public bridges under its jurisdiction whenever it is deemed necessary to do so in the interest of safety.
History.—s. 4, ch. 84-309.
Note.—Former s. 339.27(5).
335.065 Bicycle and pedestrian ways along state roads and transportation facilities.—
(1)(a) Bicycle and pedestrian ways shall be given full consideration in the planning and development of transportation facilities, including the incorporation of such ways into state, regional, and local transportation plans and programs. Bicycle and pedestrian ways shall be established in conjunction with the construction, reconstruction, or other change of any state transportation facility, and special emphasis shall be given to projects in or within 1 mile of an urban area.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a), bicycle and pedestrian ways are not required to be established:
1. Where their establishment would be contrary to public safety;
2. When the cost would be excessively disproportionate to the need or probable use;
3. Where other available means or factors indicate an absence of need.
(2) The department shall establish construction standards and a uniform system of signing for bicycle and pedestrian ways.
(3) The department, in cooperation with the Department of Environmental Protection, shall establish a statewide integrated system of bicycle and pedestrian ways in such a manner as to take full advantage of any such ways which are maintained by any governmental entity. For the purposes of this section, bicycle facilities may be established as part of or separate from the actual roadway and may utilize existing road rights-of-way or other rights-of-way or easements acquired for public use.
History.—ss. 1, 2, 4, 5, ch. 73-339; s. 5, ch. 84-284; s. 38, ch. 84-309; s. 26, ch. 85-180; s. 163, ch. 94-356.
335.066 Safe Paths to Schools Program.—
(1) There is established in the Department of Transportation the Safe Paths to Schools Program to consider the planning and construction of bicycle and pedestrian ways to provide safe transportation for children from neighborhoods to schools, parks, and the state’s greenways and trails system.
(2) As a part of the Safe Paths to Schools Program, the department may establish a grant program to fund local, regional, and state bicycle and pedestrian projects that support the program.
(3) The department may adopt appropriate rules pursuant to ss. 120.536(1) and 120.54 for the administration of the Safe Paths to Schools Program.
History.—s. 1, ch. 2002-250.
335.067 Conserve by Bicycle Program.—There is created within the Department of Transportation the Conserve by Bicycle Program. (1) The purposes of the Conserve by Bicycle Program are to:
(a) Save energy by increasing the number of miles ridden on bicycles, thereby reducing the usage of petroleum-based fuels.
(b) Increase efficiency of cycling as a transportation mode by improving interconnectivity.
(c) Reduce traffic congestion on existing roads.
(d) Provide recreational opportunities for Florida residents and visitors.
(e) Provide healthy alternatives to help reduce the trend toward obesity and reduce long-term health costs.
(f) Provide safe ways for children to travel from their homes to their schools by supporting the Safe Paths to Schools Program.
(2) In order to help accomplish these goals, the department shall conduct a Conserve by Bicycle study, which shall include a determination of the following:
(a) Where energy savings can be realized when more and safer bicycle facilities, such as bicycle paths, bicycle lanes, and other safe locations for bicycle use, are created that reduce the use of motor vehicles in the area.
(b) Where the use of education and marketing programs can convert motor vehicle trips into bicycle trips.
(c) How and under what circumstances the construction of bicycling facilities can provide more opportunities for recreation and how exercise can lead to a reduction of health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle.
(d) How the Safe Paths to Schools Program and other similar programs can reduce school-related commuter traffic, which will result in energy and roadway savings as well as improve the health of children throughout the state.
(e) How partnerships can be created among interested parties in the fields of transportation, law enforcement, education, public health, environmental restoration and conservation, and energy conservation to achieve a better possibility of success for the program.
(3) The study shall produce measurable criteria that can be used by the department to determine where and under what circumstances the construction of bicycling facilities will reduce energy consumption and the need for and cost of roadway capacity, as well as realizing the associated health benefits.
(4) The department shall conduct the study with the assistance of the State Pedestrian/Bicycle Coordinator, metropolitan planning organizations, the Office of Greenways and Trails within the Department of Environmental Protection, and the Department of Health.
(5) By July 1, 2007, if sufficient funds are available in the department’s budget or from the Federal Government, the study shall be completed and shall be submitted to the Governor, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Environmental Protection, and the State Surgeon General.
History.—s. 11, ch. 2005-87; s. 15, ch. 2008-6.
335.07 Sufficiency rating system for roads on State Highway System.—
(1) The department shall adopt a sufficiency rating system for roads on the State Highway System.
(2) Such system shall include, but shall not be limited to, the consideration of the following factors:
(a) Structural adequacy;
(b) Safety; and
(3) The determination of rating, at a minimum, shall take into consideration the volume of traffic using the roads and the minimum engineering standards required to safely accommodate such volume of traffic; the age of the roads; the width of pavement and shoulders; the number and degree of curves, both horizontal and vertical; ridability; and maintenance economy.
History.—s. 31, ch. 29965, 1955; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 39, ch. 84-309.
335.074 Safety inspection of bridges.—
(1) Those bridges having an opening measured along the center of the roadway of more than 20 feet between undercopings of abutments or spring lines of arches or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes and those bridges consisting of multiple pipes where the clear distance between openings is less than half of the smaller contiguous opening are subject to inspection in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(2) At regular intervals not to exceed 2 years, each bridge on a public transportation facility shall be inspected for structural soundness and safety for the passage of traffic on such bridge. The thoroughness with which bridges are to be inspected shall depend on such factors as age, traffic characteristics, state of maintenance, and known deficiencies. The governmental entity having maintenance responsibility for any such bridge shall be responsible for having inspections performed and reports prepared in accordance with the provisions contained herein.
(3)(a) Each bridge inspection required by subsection (2) shall be performed by an inspector who is qualified, as prescribed in subsection (4), who shall determine the load-carrying capacity and safety condition of the bridge.
(b) Each inspection shall be reported on a format designated by the department and forwarded to the department. A copy of such report shall also be provided to the local governmental entities in the jurisdictions of which the bridge is located. Data on a newly completed structure, or on any modification of an existing structure, which would alter previously submitted data on any inspection report shall be submitted to the department and the appropriate local governmental entities within 90 days of completion of the new construction or modification by the governmental entity having maintenance responsibility.
(c) The department shall maintain an inventory of bridges and appropriate records on the inspections of such bridges reported pursuant to this section.
(4)(a) An individual who inspects bridges and completes reports required by this section must possess the following minimum qualifications:
1. Be a registered professional engineer with expertise in civil engineering; or
2. Have a minimum of 5 years’ experience in bridge construction or maintenance inspection assignments in a responsible capacity and have completed a comprehensive training course approved by the department.
(b) An individual who executes reports required by this section shall be a registered professional engineer.
(5) Upon receipt of an inspection report that recommends reducing the weight, size, or speed limit on a bridge, the governmental entity having maintenance responsibility for the bridge must reduce the maximum limits for the bridge in accordance with the inspection report and shall post the limits in accordance with s. 316.555. The governmental entity must, within 30 days after receipt of an inspection report recommending lower limits, notify the department that the limitations have been implemented and the 1bridge has been posted accordingly. If the required actions are not taken within 30 days after receipt of an inspection report, the department shall post the limits on the bridge in accordance with the recommendations in the inspection report. 2All costs incurred by the department in connection with providing notice of the bridge’s limitations or restrictions shall be assessed against and collected from the governmental entity having maintenance responsibility for the bridge. If an inspection report recommends closure of a bridge, the bridge shall be immediately closed. If the governmental entity does not close the bridge immediately upon receipt of an inspection report recommending closure, the department shall close the bridge. 2All costs incurred by the department in connection with the bridge closure shall be assessed against and collected from the governmental entity having maintenance responsibility for the bridge. 3Nothing in this subsection alters existing jurisdictional responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of bridges.
History.—ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 69-271; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1, ch. 75-137; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 40, ch. 84-309; s. 16, ch. 85-81; s. 94, ch. 92-152; s. 77, ch. 99-385; s. 21, ch. 2012-128; s. 25, ch. 2012-174.
1Note.—As created by s. 25, ch. 2012-174. Section 21, ch. 2012-128, also created subsection (5), and that version used the words “limits have” instead of “bridge has.” 2Note.—As created by s. 25, ch. 2012-174. Section 21, ch. 2012-128, also created subsection (5), and that version used the word “The” instead of the word “All.” 3Note.—As created by s. 25, ch. 2012-174. Section 21, ch. 2012-128, also created subsection (5), and that version used the phrase “This subsection does not alter” instead of the phrase “Nothing in the subsection alters.”
Note.—Former s. 338.071.
335.08 Numbering public roads.—
(1) The department is authorized to number and renumber the roads of the State Highway System and to advise the counties and municipalities on the numbering of the roads in their respective road systems.
(2) The department may establish a systematic numbering plan, giving even numbers to roads extending in the general direction of east and west, and odd numbers to roads extending in the general direction of north and south.
History.—s. 32, ch. 29965, 1955; s. 11, ch. 57-318; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 4, ch. 83-52.
335.09 Uniform erection and maintenance of traffic control devices.—The department shall erect and maintain a uniform system of signs, signals, markings, and other traffic control devices for the regulation, control, guidance, and protection of traffic on the State Highway System. Such system shall conform to the department’s uniform system of traffic control devices adopted pursuant to s. 316.0745.
History.—s. 33, ch. 29965, 1955; s. 2, ch. 59-96; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 42, ch. 84-309; s. 14, ch. 85-180.
335.091 Blue Star Memorial Highway designation.—
(1) The head of the department, in cooperation with the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc., is authorized to designate certain roads in this state as Blue Star Memorial highways in honor of those individuals who have served or are serving in the Armed Forces of the United States.
(2) It is the duty of the executive board of the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc., to submit to the head of the department routes on certain roads in the state for designation as Blue Star Memorial highways. Upon designation of a route as a “Blue Star Memorial Highway,” any member club of the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc., may, with the advice, cooperation, and approval of the department, erect suitable markers and beautify such memorial highway.
(3) The department shall file with the Department of State a record of such roads so designated as Blue Star Memorial highways.
History.—ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 59-77; s. 5, ch. 67-461; ss. 10, 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 43, ch. 84-309.
335.092 Everglades Parkway scenic highway.— (1) The following terms, when used in this section, have the meanings ascribed herein:
(a) “Parkway” means the Everglades Parkway, which is a portion of State Road 84 commonly known as “Alligator Alley,” in Collier and Broward Counties.
(b) “Owner” means a person or legal entity vested with title to an advertising structure or advertising sign.
(c) “Advertisement,” “advertising structure,” “advertising sign,” “state,” “highway,” “post,” “real property,” and “adjacent” mean the same as are defined or hereafter are defined by s. 479.01.
(2) The Everglades Parkway is designated and declared to be an official scenic highway of the state. No advertising sign shall be erected or maintained within 500 feet of either side of the right-of-way of the parkway situate between the easternmost and westernmost tollgates, with the following exceptions:
(a) Official road signs erected by the department or erected by a political subdivision of the state.
(b) Signs advertising the sale or lease of the property upon which they are located, if they do not exceed 4 square feet in area.
(c) Signs advertising only the name or nature of the business being conducted on, or the products, facilities, goods or services being sold, supplied, or distributed on or from, the premises on which the signs are located, if such signs are within 500 feet of such business.
(d) Signs erected and maintained by a public utility for the purpose of giving warning of the location of an underground cable or other installation.
(3)(a) Any advertisement which is constructed, erected, operated, used, maintained, posted, or displayed in violation of this section is declared to be a public and private nuisance and shall be forthwith removed, obliterated, or abated by the secretary or the secretary’s representatives; and for that purpose they may enter upon private property without incurring any liability therefor.
(b) Any person who violates any provision of this section, whether as principal, agent, or employee, for which violation no other penalty is prescribed, is guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than $10 or more than $300. Such person shall be deemed guilty of a separate offense for each month during any portion of which any violation of this section is committed, continued, or permitted. The existence of any advertising copy or any outdoor advertising structure, outdoor advertising sign, or advertisement shall constitute prima facie evidence that the outdoor advertising sign or advertisement was constructed, erected, operated, used, maintained, or displayed with the consent and approval and under the authority of the person whose goods or services are advertised thereon.
(4) Wherever the provisions of this section are inconsistent with the provisions of chapter 479, the provisions of this section shall prevail except when otherwise specifically provided in this section.
History.—ss. 1, 2, 3, 4, ch. 69-371; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 23, ch. 84-227; s. 44, ch. 84-309; s. 490, ch. 95-148.
335.093 Scenic highway designation.—
(1) The Department of Transportation may, after consultation with other state agencies and local governments, designate public roads as scenic highways. Public roads designated as scenic highways are intended to preserve, maintain, and protect a part of Florida’s cultural, historical, and scenic routes for vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian travel.
(2) The department may by rule adopt appropriate criteria for the designation of scenic highways and may specify appropriate planning and design standards including corridor management plans on such scenic highways.
(3) The designation of scenic highways by the department and the criteria adopted by the department for the designation of scenic highways are not intended to affect or limit existing or customary uses in commercial or industrial areas that are adjacent to designated scenic highways nor is designation intended to limit the ability of local government entities to control or limit land uses in commercial or industrial areas within their jurisdictions. This subsection shall take effect on July 1, 1996.
History.—s. 54, ch. 93-164; s. 43, ch. 94-237; s. 17, ch. 99-385.
335.10 State Highway System; vehicle regulation; prohibited use and traffic; liability for damage.—
(1) The department shall prescribe regulations for vehicles operating on the State Highway System. At least 14 days prior to implementation of such regulations, notice of such regulations shall be provided in writing by certified mail, return receipt requested, to each local governmental entity where such regulations will be applicable.
(2) The department shall prohibit any use of, and any traffic on, the State Highway System that might damage or destroy the same.
(3) Any person is civilly liable to the department for the actual damage to a road under the department’s jurisdiction by reason of his or her wrongful act; such damage may be recovered by suit and, when collected, shall be paid into the State Treasury to the credit of the State Transportation Trust Fund or other appropriate department trust fund if the damage occurred to the turnpike system.
History.—s. 34, ch. 29965, 1955; s. 2, ch. 61-119; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; ss. 2, 3, ch. 73-57; s. 45, ch. 84-309; s. 46, ch. 93-164; s. 491, ch. 95-148.
335.14 Traffic control devices on State Highway System or State Park Road System; exemption for computerized traffic systems and control devices.—
(1) All traffic control devices installed on any road on the State Highway System or State Park Road System shall conform to the uniform system of traffic control devices adopted pursuant to s. 316.0745. No such device shall be installed on the State Highway System without the approval of the department and, if the road is a federal-aid road, the additional concurrence of the Federal Highway Administration. Any such device that is installed without such approval may be removed without payment to the owner if, upon request by the department, the owner refuses to remove such device.
(2) Computerized traffic systems and control devices which are used solely for the purpose of motor vehicle traffic control and surveillance shall be exempted from the provisions of chapter 282.
History.—s. 38, ch. 29965, 1955; s. 13, ch. 57-318; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1, ch. 82-94; s. 50, ch. 84-309; s. 15, ch. 85-180; s. 2, ch. 87-352; s. 30, ch. 2003-1.
335.141 Regulation of public railroad-highway grade crossings; reduction of hazards.—
(1)(a) The department shall have regulatory authority over all public railroad-highway grade crossings in the state, including the authority to issue permits which shall be required prior to the opening and closing of such crossings.
(b) A “public railroad-highway grade crossing” is a location at which a railroad track is crossed at grade by a public road.
(2)(a) The department, in cooperation with the several railroad companies operating in the state, shall develop and adopt a program for the expenditure of funds available for the construction of projects for the reduction of the hazards at public railroad-highway grade crossings. The department and the railroad companies are not liable for any action or omission in the development of such program or for the priority given to any crossing improvement.
(b) Every railroad company maintaining a public railroad-highway grade crossing shall, upon reasonable notice from the department, install, maintain, and operate at such crossing traffic control devices to provide motorists with warning of the approach of trains. The department shall base its notice on its adopted program for the reduction of hazards at such crossings and on construction efficiency considerations relating to the geographical proximity of crossings included in such program. The design of the traffic control devices must be approved by the department, and the cost of their purchase and installation must be paid from the funds described in paragraph (a).
(c) Any public railroad crossing opened prior to July 1, 1972, shall be maintained by the railroad company at its own expense, unless the maintenance has been provided for in another manner by contractual agreement entered into prior to October 1, 1982. If the railroad company fails to maintain the crossing, the unit of government with jurisdiction over the public road that is crossed, after notifying the railroad company of the needed repairs and after giving the company 30 days after the date of receipt of the notice to make the repairs, shall proceed to make the repairs. The cost of repairs shall thereupon become a lien upon the railroad and its rolling stock, which lien shall be enforceable by an ordinary suit at law. Any judgment rendered under this paragraph shall include a reasonable attorney’s fee.
(d) Prior to commencing the construction, rehabilitation, or maintenance of the railroad grade or highway approaches at a public railroad-highway grade crossing, the railroad company or governmental entity initiating the work shall notify the other party in order to promote the coordination of activities and to ensure a safe crossing with smooth pavement transitions from the grade of the railroad to the highway approaches.
(3) The department is authorized to regulate the speed limits of railroad traffic on a municipal, county, regional, or statewide basis. Such speed limits shall be established by order of the department, which order is subject to the provisions of chapter 120. The department shall have the authority to adopt reasonable rules to carry out the provisions of this subsection. Such rules shall, at a minimum, provide for public input prior to the issuance of any such order.
(4) Jurisdiction to enforce such orders shall be as provided in s. 316.640, and any penalty for violation thereof shall be imposed upon the railroad company guilty of such violation. Nothing herein shall prevent a local governmental entity from enacting ordinances relating to the blocking of streets by railroad engines and cars.
(5) Any local governmental entity or other public or private agency planning a public event, such as a parade or race, that involves the crossing of a railroad track shall notify the railroad as far in advance of the event as possible and in no case less than 72 hours in advance of the event so that the coordination of the crossing may be arranged by the agency and railroad to assure the safety of the railroad trains and the participants in the event.
History.—s. 131, ch. 29965, 1955; s. 1, ch. 63-88; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1, ch. 72-165; s. 49, ch. 76-31; s. 56, ch. 78-95; s. 2, ch. 82-90; s. 51, ch. 84-309; s. 27, ch. 86-243; s. 1, ch. 88-88; s. 34, ch. 91-221.
Note.—Former s. 338.21.
335.15 Detour roads.—
(1) Whenever any road or structure on the State Highway System is repaired, reconstructed, relocated, or otherwise altered in such a manner as necessitates the closing of such road or structure to use by the public, the department shall provide a detour road to afford a safe means of travel around such road or structure so closed. The department may use any other existing road as a part of such detour road. However, the department shall give prior notice to the local governmental entity within which any such alternate road is located. The length of the detour route shall be as short as is practicable.
(2) Subsection (1) shall not be construed to prevent the department from adopting rules for one-way travel for a distance not in excess of 1 mile.
(3) This section is applicable in every case, whether the work provided for in subsection (1) is done by the department or at its direction or under its supervision.
(4)(a) This section does not apply if its application would be contrary to the regulations or requirements of any federal agency providing all or a part of the funds for any such work.
(b) This section does not apply in any case of emergency highway work caused by act of God or other sudden, unexpected event.
(5) Whenever a temporary detour is necessary to bypass a bridge on the State Highway System due to accident, unforeseen failure of equipment, or emergency traffic stoppage and the only available detour is over a toll facility, the department is authorized to pay to the appropriate authority the tolls that would normally have been collected.
(6) Whenever any road on the State Highway System is repaired, reconstructed, or otherwise altered in a manner that necessitates the closing of one or more traveling lanes of the road for a period of time exceeding 2 hours, the party performing such work shall give notice to the appropriate local law enforcement agency within whose jurisdiction such road is located prior to commencing work on the project. However, when the closing of one or more lanes is required because of emergency conditions, such notice shall be waived.
History.—s. 39, ch. 29965, 1955; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 2, ch. 82-94; s. 55, ch. 84-309; s. 1, ch. 86-37; s. 35, ch. 91-221.
335.16 Wayside parks and access roads to public waters.—
(1) The department is authorized to expend state funds, as designated, for the establishment of, the acquisition of rights-of-way for, the construction of, the reconstruction of, and the maintenance of wayside parks, boat ramps and other park facilities on and near the edge of public waters or along the State Highway System, and access roads which extend from a state road to such facilities which are contiguous to the state road. Any rights-of-way needed may be acquired by gift, exchange, or purchase, but not by condemnation.
(2) Such access roads leading to public waters, as described in subsection (1), shall be included in the appropriate public road system as determined by the department.
History.—s. 40, ch. 29965, 1955; s. 1, ch. 59-227; ss. 23, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 56, ch. 84-309.
335.167 State highway construction and maintenance; Florida-friendly landscaping.—
(1) The department shall use and require the use of Florida-friendly landscaping practices, as defined in s. 373.185, in the construction and maintenance of all new state highways, wayside parks, access roads, welcome stations, and other state highway rights-of-way constructed upon or acquired after June 30, 2009. The department shall develop a 5-year program for phasing in the use of Florida-friendly landscaping, including the use of solid waste compost, in state highway rights-of-way constructed upon or acquired before July 1, 2009. In accomplishing these tasks, the department shall employ the standards set out in s. 373.185.
(2)(a) The Legislature finds that the use of Florida-friendly landscaping and other water use and pollution prevention measures to conserve or protect the state’s water resources serves a compelling public interest and that the participation of homeowners’ associations and local governments is essential to the state’s efforts in water conservation and water quality protection and restoration.
(b) A deed restriction or covenant may not prohibit or be enforced so as to prohibit any property owner from implementing Florida-friendly landscaping on his or her land or create any requirement or limitation in conflict with any provision of part II of chapter 373 or a water shortage order, other order, consumptive use permit, or rule adopted or issued pursuant to part II of chapter 373.
(c) A local government ordinance may not prohibit or be enforced so as to prohibit any property owner from implementing Florida-friendly landscaping on his or her land.
History.—s. 2, ch. 91-41; s. 2, ch. 91-68; s. 5, ch. 2001-252; s. 24, ch. 2009-243.
335.17 State highway construction; means of noise abatement.—
(1) The department shall make use of noise-control methods as part of highway construction projects involving new location or capacity expansion, with particular emphasis on those highways located in or near urban-residential developments which abut such highway rights-of-way.
(2) All highway projects by the department, regardless of funding source, shall be developed in conformity with federal standards for noise abatement as contained in 23 C.F.R. 772 as such regulations existed on July 13, 2011. The department shall, at a minimum, comply with federal requirements in the following areas:
(a) Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures;
(b) Noise abatement;
(c) Information for local officials;
(d) Traffic noise prediction; and
(e) Construction noise.
(3) The department shall, when feasible, expend the maximum amount of federal funds provided for new highway construction for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section.
History.—s. 1, ch. 74-371; s. 29, ch. 79-65; s. 58, ch. 84-309; s. 2, ch. 89-232; s. 26, ch. 2012-174.
335.18 Short title.—Sections 335.18-335.188 may be cited as the “State Highway System Access Management Act.”
History.—s. 1, ch. 75-157; s. 59, ch. 84-309; s. 3, ch. 88-224; s. 98, ch. 92-152.
335.181 Regulation of access to State Highway System; legislative findings, policy, and purpose.— (1) It is the finding of the Legislature that:
(a) Regulation of access to the State Highway System is necessary in order to protect the public health, safety, and welfare, to preserve the functional integrity of the State Highway System, and to promote the safe and efficient movement of people and goods within the state.
(b) The development of an access management program, in accordance with this act, will assist in the coordination of land use planning decisions by local governments with investments in the State Highway System and will serve to enhance managed growth and the overall development of commerce within the state as served by the State Highway System. Without such a program, the health, safety, and welfare of the residents of this state may be placed at risk, due to the fact that unregulated access to the State Highway System is one of the contributing factors to the congestion and functional deterioration of the system.
(c) The Legislature further finds and declares that the development of an access management program in accordance with this act will enhance the development of an effective transportation system and increase the traffic-carrying capacity of the State Highway System and thereby reduce the incidences of traffic accidents, personal injury, and property damage or loss; mitigate environmental degradation; promote sound economic growth and the growth management goals of the state; reduce highway maintenance costs and the necessity for costly traffic operations measures; lengthen the effective life of transportation facilities in the state; prevent delays in public evacuations for natural storms and emergencies; enhance disaster-response readiness; and shorten response time for emergency vehicles.
(2) It is the policy of the Legislature that:
(a) Every owner of property which abuts a road on the State Highway System has a right to reasonable access to the abutting state highway but does not have the right of unregulated access to such highway. The operational capabilities of an access connection may be restricted by the department. However, a means of reasonable access to an abutting state highway may not be denied by the department, except on the basis of safety or operational concerns as provided in s. 335.184.
(b) The access rights of an owner of property abutting the State Highway System are subject to reasonable regulation to ensure the public’s right and interest in a safe and efficient highway system. This paragraph does not authorize the department to deny a means of reasonable access to an abutting state highway, except on the basis of safety or operational concerns as provided in s. 335.184. Property owners are encouraged to implement the use of joint access where legally available.
(3) The Legislature further declares that it is the purpose of this act to provide a coordinated planning process for the permitting of access points on the State Highway System to effectuate the findings and policy of this act.
(4) Nothing in this act shall affect the right to full compensation under s. 6, Art. X of the State Constitution.
(5) Nothing in this act limits the power of eminent domain vested in the department pursuant to s. 337.27.
(6) This act does not create any additional property rights. The denial of reasonable direct access to an abutting state highway pursuant to s. 335.184 is not compensable under the provisions of this act unless the denial would be otherwise compensable absent the provisions of this act. The denial in and of itself of an access permit by the Department of Transportation shall not be the only substantive allegation in support of a petition to state a cause of action pursuant to s. 6, Art. X of the State Constitution.
(7) Nothing in this act prohibits the construction of service roads along a highway on the State Highway System so long as such service roads provide reasonable access to such highway. A property owner whose land abuts a service road is entitled to reasonable access to such service road pursuant to s. 335.184. However, nothing in this act requires that a property owner whose land abuts a service road be given direct access across the service road to the state highway served thereby.
History.—s. 4, ch. 88-224; s. 36, ch. 91-221; s. 99, ch. 92-152.
335.182 Regulation of connections to roads on State Highway System; definitions.—
(1) Vehicular access and connections to or from the State Highway System shall be regulated by the department in accordance with the provisions of this act in order to protect the public health, safety, and welfare.
(2) The department shall adopt, by rule, administrative procedures for its issuance and modification of access permits, closing of unpermitted connections, and revocation of permits in accordance with this act.
(3) As used in this act, the term:
(a) “Connection” means driveways, streets, turnouts, or other means of providing for the right of reasonable access to or from the State Highway System.
(b) “Significant change” means a change in the use of the property, including land, structures or facilities, or an expansion of the size of the structures or facilities causing an increase in the trip generation of the property exceeding 25 percent more trip generation (either peak hour or daily) and exceeding 100 vehicles per day more than the existing use.
History.—s. 5, ch. 88-224; s. 100, ch. 92-152; s. 79, ch. 99-385.
335.1825 Access permit required; authority to close unpermitted connections.—
(1) A connection may not be constructed or substantially altered without obtaining an access permit in accordance with this act in advance of such action. The department has the authority to restrict or deny access to the State Highway System, in accordance with the provisions of this act, at the location specified in the permit until the permittee constructs or alters the connection in accordance with the permit requirements.
(2) The cost of construction or alteration of a connection shall be borne by the permittee, except for alterations which are not required by law, but are made at the request of and for the convenience of the department. The permittee, however, shall bear the cost of alteration of any connection which is required by the department due to increased or altered traffic flows generated by changes in the facilities or nature of business conducted at the location specified in the permit, if the department establishes the need for such alteration.
(3) Except as otherwise provided in this act, an unpermitted connection is subject to closure by the department which shall have the right to install barriers across or remove the connection. When the department determines that a connection is unpermitted and subject to closure, it shall provide reasonable notice of its impending action to the owner of property served by the connection. The department’s procedures for providing notice and preventing the operation of unpermitted connections shall be adopted by rule.
(4) The department may initiate injunctive proceedings as provided in s. 120.69 to enforce the provisions of this section or any rule or order issued or entered pursuant thereto.
History.—s. 6, ch. 88-224; s. 3, ch. 89-232; s. 101, ch. 92-152.
335.183 Permit application fee.—The department shall establish, by rule, a graduated schedule of fees for permit applications made to the department. Such fees shall be nonrefundable and shall be used to offset the costs of administering the access permit review process and the costs associated with administering the provisions of this act. In no event shall a fee be more than $5,000.
History.—s. 7, ch. 88-224; s. 102, ch. 92-152.
335.184 Access permit review process by the department; permit denial; justification; administrative review.—The review process for access permit applications made by the department shall be as follows:
(1) Any person seeking an access permit shall file an application with the department in the district in which the property for which the permit being requested is located. The department, by rule, shall establish application form and content requirements. The fee as required by s. 335.183 must accompany the application.
(2) All permit applications shall be reviewed in conformity with s. 120.60.
(3) A property owner shall be granted a permit for an access connection to the abutting state highway, unless the permitting of such access connection would jeopardize the safety of the public or have a negative impact upon the operational characteristics of the highway. Such access connection and permitted turning movements shall be based upon standards and criteria adopted, by rule, by the department. (a) In making the determination of whether to deny access to an abutting property owner, the department may consider, but is not limited to considering:
1. The number or severity of traffic accidents occurring on the segment of the highway to which access is sought, and the impact thereon from providing such access;
2. The operational speed on the segment of the highway to which such access is sought and the level and amount of deceleration which such access would cause;
3. The geographic location of the segment of the highway to which such access is sought;
4. The operational characteristics of the segment of the highway to which such access is sought and the impact thereon from providing such access; or
5. The level of service of the segment of the highway to which such access is sought and the impact thereon from providing such access.
(b) If the department denies an application for an access permit, it must send written notification of such denial to the applicant. Such notification must include the specific reasons for the denial and inform the applicant of his or her rights under paragraphs (c) and (d).
(c) An applicant whose permit has been denied may, within 7 days after the receipt of notification of such denial, request a meeting with department personnel to determine whether any means exist by which the reasons for denial of a permit may be mitigated so that the permit may be issued. Upon the timely receipt of a written request for such meeting, the appropriate department personnel shall meet with the applicant to attempt such mitigation. Such request or the failure to make such request, any statements made during such meeting, and the results of such meeting shall not be admissible in any subsequent judicial or administrative proceeding regarding the denial of an access permit.
(d) The denial of an access permit pursuant to this section shall be subject to administrative review under the provisions of chapter 120.
Nothing in this subsection limits the department’s authority to restrict the operational characteristics of a particular means of access.
History.—s. 8, ch. 88-224; s. 103, ch. 92-152; s. 492, ch. 95-148.
335.185 Permit conditions; expiration.—
(1) The department may issue a permit subject to any reasonable conditions necessary to carry out the provisions of this act. The department may revoke a permit if the applicant fails to comply with the conditions upon which the issuance of the permit was predicated.
(2) All permits issued pursuant to this act shall automatically expire and become invalid if the connection is not constructed within 1 year after the issuance of the permit, unless the department extends the date of expiration, for good cause, upon its own initiative or upon the request of a permittee.
History.—s. 9, ch. 88-224; s. 104, ch. 92-152.
335.187 Unpermitted connections; existing access permits; nonconforming permits; modification and revocation of permits.—
(1) Unpermitted connections to the State Highway System in existence on July 1, 1988, which have been in continuous use for a period of 1 year or more shall not require the issuance of a permit and may continue to provide access to the State Highway System. However, the department may require that a permit be obtained for such a connection if a significant change occurs in the use, design, or traffic flow of the connection. If a permit is not obtained, the connection may be closed pursuant to s. 335.1825(3).
(2) Access permits in effect on July 1, 1988, shall remain valid until modified or revoked. The department may, after written notification and a hearing, as provided for in s. 120.60, modify or revoke an access permit granted prior to July 1, 1988, by requiring relocation, alteration, or closure of the connection if a significant change occurs in the use, design, or traffic flow of the connection.
(3) The department may issue a nonconforming access permit after finding that to deny an access permit would leave the property without a reasonable means of access to the State Highway System. The department may specify limits on the maximum vehicular use of the connection and may be conditioned on the availability of future alternative means of access for which access permits can be obtained.
(4) After written notice and the opportunity for a hearing, as provided for in s. 120.60, the department may modify or revoke an access permit issued after July 1, 1988, by requiring relocation, alteration, or closure of an existing connection if a significant change occurs in the use, design, or traffic flow of the connection.
(5) A means of reasonable access to an abutting state highway may not be denied to a property owner, except on the basis of safety or operational concerns as provided in s. 335.184.
History.—s. 10, ch. 88-224; s. 105, ch. 92-152.
335.188 Access management standards; access control classification system; criteria.—
(1) The department shall develop, adopt, and maintain an access control classification system for all routes on the State Highway System, the purpose of which shall be to provide for the implementation and continuing application of the provisions of this act.
(2) The principal component of the access control classification system shall be access management standards, the purpose of which shall be to provide specific standards and criteria to be adhered to in the planning for and approval of access to roads on the State Highway System.
(3) The control classification system shall be developed consistent with the following:
(a) The department shall adopt rules setting forth procedures governing the implementation of the access control classification system required by this act. The rule shall provide for input from the entities described in paragraph (b) as well as for public meetings to discuss the access control classification system. Nothing in this act affects the validity of the department’s existing or subsequently adopted rules concerning access to the State Highway System. Such rules shall remain in effect until repealed or replaced by the rules required by this act.
(b) The access control classification system shall be developed in cooperation with counties, municipalities, the state land planning agency, regional planning councils, metropolitan planning organizations, and other local governmental entities.
(c) The rule required by this section shall provide for notification by publication in a local newspaper of general circulation prior to a change in the assignment of a road segment to a specific access category. The assignment or reassignment of a road segment to a specific access category shall be made in consideration of the following criteria:
1. The current functional classification of each road on the State Highway System;
2. Existing and projected traffic volumes;
3. Existing and projected state, local, and metropolitan planning organization transportation plans and needs;
4. Drainage requirements;
5. The character of lands adjoining the highway;
6. Local land use plans and zoning, as set forth in comprehensive plans;
7. The type and volume of traffic requiring access;
8. Other operational aspects of access;
9. The availability of reasonable access to a state highway by way of county roads and city streets, as applicable to the classification of such roadway segment only; and
10. The cumulative effect of existing and projected connections on the State Highway System’s ability to provide for the safe and efficient movement of people and goods within the state.
(d) Access management standards shall include, but not be limited to, connection location standards, safety factors, design and construction standards, traffic control devices, and effective maintenance of the roads. The standards shall also contain criteria for the spacing of connections, intersecting streets, roads, and highways.
(e) An access control category shall be assigned to each segment of the State Highway System.
History.—s. 11, ch. 88-224; s. 4, ch. 89-232; s. 106, ch. 92-152; s. 80, ch. 99-385.
1335.199 Transportation projects modifying access to adjacent property.—
(1) Whenever the Department of Transportation proposes any project on the State Highway System which will divide a state highway, erect median barriers modifying currently available vehicle turning movements, or have the effect of closing or modifying an existing access to an abutting property owner, the department shall notify all affected property owners, municipalities, and counties at least 180 days before the design of the project is finalized. The department’s notice shall provide a written explanation regarding the need for the project and indicate that all affected parties will be given an opportunity to provide comments to the department regarding potential impacts of the change.
(2)(a) If the project is within the boundaries of a municipality, the notification shall be issued in writing to the chief elected official of the municipality. If the project is in the unincorporated area of a county, the notification shall be issued in writing to the chief elected official of the county.
(b) The department must also consult with the applicable local government on its final design proposal if the department intends to divide a state highway, erect median barriers, or close or modify existing access to abutting commercial business properties. The local government may present the department with alternatives that relieve impacts to such business properties.
(3) The department shall hold at least one public hearing in the jurisdiction where the project is located and receive public input to determine how the project will affect access to businesses and the potential economic impact of the project on the local business community.
(4) The department must review all comments from the public hearing and take the comments and any alternatives presented by a local government under subsection (2) into consideration in the final design of the highway project.
History.—ss. 1,2, ch. 2010-281; SJR 10-A, 2010 Special Session A.
1Note.—Section 2, ch. 2010-281, provides that “[t]his act shall take effect July 1, 2010.” Passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives over the Governor’s veto November 16, 2010. Senate Joint Resolution 10-A, 2010 Special Session A, provides that C.S. for C.S. for S.B. 1842, which became ch. 2010-281, is effective November 17, 2010.