2021 Florida Statutes (Including 2021B Session)
CRIMINAL APPEALS AND COLLATERAL REVIEW
CRIMINAL APPEALS AND COLLATERAL REVIEW
CRIMINAL APPEALS AND COLLATERAL REVIEW
924.02 Who may appeal.
924.04 Appeal by one of several defendants.
924.05 Appeal as matter of right.
924.051 Terms and conditions of appeals and collateral review in criminal cases.
924.055 Postconviction review in capital cases; legislative findings and intent.
924.056 Capital postconviction proceedings; reporting requirements.
924.057 Capital postconviction proceedings; legislative intent.
924.06 Appeal by defendant.
924.065 Denial of motion for new trial or arrest of judgment; appeal bond; supersedeas.
924.066 Collateral relief.
924.07 Appeal by state.
924.071 Additional grounds for appeal by the state; time for taking; stay of cause.
924.09 When appeal to be taken by defendant.
924.14 Stay of execution when defendant appeals.
924.15 Approval of appeal bonds.
924.16 Discharge pending appeal.
924.17 Costs when appellant is indigent.
924.18 Bail when state appeals.
924.19 When operation of order in favor of defendant not stayed.
924.20 Duty of court upon breach of undertaking.
924.22 Stay when execution of sentence already commenced.
924.28 Failure of clerk to transmit appeal papers as required.
924.31 When argument necessary.
924.33 When judgment not to be reversed or modified.
924.34 When evidence sustains only conviction of lesser offense.
924.35 Enforcement of judgment on affirmance.
924.37 Order or decision when state appeals.
924.38 When removal shall be allowed on new trial.
924.02 Who may appeal.—The defendant or the state may appeal in criminal cases.
History.—s. 281, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(291); s. 143, ch. 70-339.
924.04 Appeal by one of several defendants.—One or more defendants who are tried jointly may appeal, but those who do not join shall not be affected by the appeal except by express provision of the appellate court.
History.—s. 283, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(293); s. 145, ch. 70-339.
924.05 Appeal as matter of right.—Direct appeals provided for in this chapter are a matter of right.
History.—s. 284, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(294); s. 146, ch. 70-339; s. 3, ch. 96-248.
924.051 Terms and conditions of appeals and collateral review in criminal cases.—
(1) As used in this section:
(a) “Prejudicial error” means an error in the trial court that harmfully affected the judgment or sentence.
(b) “Preserved” means that an issue, legal argument, or objection to evidence was timely raised before, and ruled on by, the trial court, and that the issue, legal argument, or objection to evidence was sufficiently precise that it fairly apprised the trial court of the relief sought and the grounds therefor.
(2) The right to direct appeal and the provisions for collateral review created in this chapter may only be implemented in strict accordance with the terms and conditions of this section.
(3) An appeal may not be taken from a judgment or order of a trial court unless a prejudicial error is alleged and is properly preserved or, if not properly preserved, would constitute fundamental error. A judgment or sentence may be reversed on appeal only when an appellate court determines after a review of the complete record that prejudicial error occurred and was properly preserved in the trial court or, if not properly preserved, would constitute fundamental error.
(4) If a defendant pleads nolo contendere without expressly reserving the right to appeal a legally dispositive issue, or if a defendant pleads guilty without expressly reserving the right to appeal a legally dispositive issue, the defendant may not appeal the judgment or sentence.
(5) Collateral relief is not available on grounds that were or could have been raised at trial and, if properly preserved, on direct appeal of the conviction and sentence.
(6) In a noncapital case, a petition or motion for collateral or other postconviction relief may not be considered if it is filed more than 2 years after the judgment and sentence became final, unless the petition or motion alleges that:
(a) The facts upon which the claim is predicated were unknown to the petitioner or his or her attorney and could not have been ascertained by the exercise of due diligence;
(b) The fundamental constitutional right asserted was not established within the period provided for in this subsection and has been held to apply retroactively; or
(c) The sentence imposed was illegal because it either exceeded the maximum or fell below the minimum authorized by statute for the criminal offense at issue. Either the state or the defendant may petition the trial court to vacate an illegal sentence at any time.
(7) In a direct appeal or a collateral proceeding, the party challenging the judgment or order of the trial court has the burden of demonstrating that a prejudicial error occurred in the trial court. A conviction or sentence may not be reversed absent an express finding that a prejudicial error occurred in the trial court.
(8) It is the intent of the Legislature that all terms and conditions of direct appeal and collateral review be strictly enforced, including the application of procedural bars, to ensure that all claims of error are raised and resolved at the first opportunity. It is also the Legislature’s intent that all procedural bars to direct appeal and collateral review be fully enforced by the courts of this state.
(9) Funds, resources, or employees of this state or its political subdivisions may not be used, directly or indirectly, in appellate or collateral proceedings unless the use is constitutionally or statutorily mandated.
History.—s. 4, ch. 96-248; s. 1842, ch. 97-102; s. 11, ch. 97-313; s. 19, ch. 2000-3.
924.055 Postconviction review in capital cases; legislative findings and intent.—It is the intent of the Legislature to reduce delays in capital cases and to ensure that all appeals and postconviction actions in capital cases are resolved as soon as possible after the date a sentence of death is imposed in the circuit court. A person sentenced to death or that person’s capital postconviction counsel must file any postconviction legal action in compliance with the Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure.
History.—s. 8, ch. 96-290; s. 5, ch. 2000-3; s. 13, ch. 2013-216.
924.056 Capital postconviction proceedings; reporting requirements.—
(1) The Supreme Court shall annually report to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the Senate the status of each capital case in which a postconviction action has been filed that has been continuously pending for more than 3 years. The report must include the name of the state court judge involved in the case.
(2) In a capital postconviction proceeding in which it has been determined that an attorney of record provided constitutionally deficient representation and relief has been granted as a result of such determination, after the highest court having jurisdiction to review such determination has issued its final order affirming the determination, the court making such determination shall furnish a copy of the findings to The Florida Bar for appropriate disciplinary action.
History.—s. 6, ch. 2000-3; s. 14, ch. 2013-216.
924.057 Capital postconviction proceedings; legislative intent.—The Legislature acknowledges the efforts made by the judicial branch in establishing the rules of criminal procedure that make the capital postconviction process fair and more efficient. The Legislature also recognizes and commends the judicial branch for continuing these efforts by issuing Administrative Order AOSC13-11, which creates a Capital Postconviction Proceedings Subcommittee of the Criminal Court Steering Committee, and directs the subcommittee to undertake a comprehensive review of capital postconviction proceedings, and to make recommendations to the Supreme Court whether court rules should be amended to improve the overall efficiency of the capital postconviction process. In support of these efforts, the Legislature expresses its intent that capital postconviction proceedings be conducted in accordance with court rules, and that courts strictly adhere to the timeframes and postconviction motion content requirements established therein.
History.—s. 7, ch. 2000-3; s. 15, ch. 2013-216.
924.06 Appeal by defendant.—
(1) A defendant may appeal from:
(a) A final judgment of conviction when probation has not been granted under chapter 948, except as provided in subsection (3);
(b) An order granting probation under chapter 948;
(c) An order revoking probation under chapter 948;
(d) A sentence, on the ground that it is illegal; or
(e) A sentence imposed under s. 921.0024 of the Criminal Punishment Code which exceeds the statutory maximum penalty provided in s. 775.082 for an offense at conviction, or the consecutive statutory maximums for offenses at conviction, unless otherwise provided by law.
(2) An appeal of an order granting probation shall proceed in the same manner and have the same effect as an appeal of a judgment of conviction. An appeal of an order revoking probation may review only proceedings after the order of probation. If a judgment of conviction preceded an order of probation, the defendant may appeal from the order or the judgment or both.
(3) A defendant who pleads guilty with no express reservation of the right to appeal a legally dispositive issue, or a defendant who pleads nolo contendere with no express reservation of the right to appeal a legally dispositive issue, shall have no right to a direct appeal.
History.—s. 285, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(295); s. 22, ch. 20519, 1941; s. 3, ch. 59-130; s. 147, ch. 70-339; s. 7, ch. 76-274; s. 3, ch. 83-87; s. 6, ch. 93-406; s. 5, ch. 96-248; s. 27, ch. 97-194; s. 13, ch. 98-204.
924.065 Denial of motion for new trial or arrest of judgment; appeal bond; supersedeas.—
(1) Immediately after denial of a motion for a new trial or a motion in arrest of judgment, the court shall dictate the denial to the court reporter and sentence the defendant. The defendant may file notice of appeal following denial of the motion and sentencing. Upon filing of notice of appeal, the court shall set the amount of the appeal bond if the defendant is entitled to bail. The clerk shall prepare a certificate setting forth the filing and approval of the supersedeas bond, and the certificate shall be sufficient authority for release of the defendant.
(2) An appeal may not be a supersedeas to the execution of the judgment, sentence, or order until the appellant has entered into a bond with at least two sureties to secure the payment of the judgment, fine, and any future costs that may be adjudged by the appellate court. The bond shall be conditioned on the appellant’s personally answering and abiding by the final order, sentence, or judgment of the appellate court and, if the action is remanded, on the appellant’s appearing before the court in which the case was originally determined and not departing without leave of court.
(3) An appellant who has been sentenced to death shall not be released on bail.
History.—s. 239, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(248); s. 120, ch. 70-339; s. 23, ch. 2013-25.
Note.—Former s. 920.02.
924.066 Collateral relief.—
(1) Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this chapter, a prisoner in custody may seek relief based upon claims that the judgment of conviction or sentence was imposed in violation of the Constitution or law of the United States or the State of Florida.
(2) Either the state or a prisoner in custody may obtain review in the next higher state court of a trial court’s adverse ruling granting or denying collateral relief. The state may obtain review of any trial court ruling that fails to enforce a procedural bar.
(3) A person in a noncapital case who is seeking collateral review under this chapter has no right to a court-appointed lawyer.
History.—s. 6, ch. 96-248.
924.07 Appeal by state.—
(1) The state may appeal from:
(a) An order dismissing an indictment or information or any count thereof or dismissing an affidavit charging the commission of a criminal offense, the violation of probation, the violation of community control, or the violation of any supervised correctional release.
(b) An order granting a new trial.
(c) An order arresting judgment.
(d) A ruling on a question of law when the defendant is convicted and appeals from the judgment. Once the state’s cross-appeal is instituted, the appellate court shall review and rule upon the question raised by the state regardless of the disposition of the defendant’s appeal.
(e) The sentence, on the ground that it is illegal.
(f) A judgment discharging a prisoner on habeas corpus.
(g) An order adjudicating a defendant insane under the Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure.
(h) All other pretrial orders, except that it may not take more than one appeal under this subsection in any case.
(i) A sentence imposed below the lowest permissible sentence established by the Criminal Punishment Code under chapter 921.
(j) A ruling granting a motion for judgment of acquittal after a jury verdict.
(k) An order denying restitution under s. 775.089.
(l) An order or ruling suppressing evidence or evidence in limine at trial.
(m) An order withholding adjudication of guilt in violation of s. 775.08435.
(2) An appeal under this section must embody all assignments of error in each pretrial order that the state seeks to have reviewed. The state shall pay all costs of the appeal except for the defendant’s attorney’s fee.
History.—s. 286, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(296); s. 1, ch. 69-15; s. 148, ch. 70-339; s. 4, ch. 83-87; s. 46, ch. 87-243; s. 1, ch. 90-239; s. 14, ch. 93-37; s. 7, ch. 93-406; s. 7, ch. 96-248; s. 28, ch. 97-194; s. 14, ch. 98-204; s. 2, ch. 2004-60.
924.071 Additional grounds for appeal by the state; time for taking; stay of cause.—
(1) The state may appeal from a pretrial order dismissing a search warrant or suppressing evidence, however obtained, or which directly and expressly conflicts with an appellate decision of a district court of appeal or of the Florida Supreme Court. The appeal must be taken before the trial.
(2) An appeal by the state from a pretrial order shall stay the case against each defendant upon whose application the order was made until the appeal is determined. If the trial court determines that the evidence, confession, or admission that is the subject of the order would materially assist the state in proving its case against another defendant and that the prosecuting attorney intends to use it for that purpose, the court shall stay the case of that defendant until the appeal is determined. A defendant in custody whose case is stayed either automatically or by order of the court shall be released on his or her own recognizance pending the appeal if he or she is charged with a bailable offense.
History.—ss. 1, 2, ch. 67-123; s. 1, ch. 69-267; s. 149, ch. 70-339; s. 2, ch. 90-239; s. 1554, ch. 97-102.
924.09 When appeal to be taken by defendant.—An appeal may be taken by the defendant only within the time provided by the Florida Rules of Appellate Procedure after the judgment, sentence, or order appealed from is entered, except that an appeal by a person who has not been granted probation may be taken from both judgment and sentence within the time provided by said rules after the sentence is entered.
History.—s. 288, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(298); s. 4, ch. 59-130; s. 1, ch. 69-267.
924.14 Stay of execution when defendant appeals.—An appeal by a defendant from either the judgment or sentence shall stay execution of the sentence, subject to the provisions of s. 924.065.
History.—s. 293a, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(303); s. 151, ch. 70-339.
924.15 Approval of appeal bonds.—Appeal bonds shall be approved by the court which originally determined the action and shall be filed with the clerk of that court.
History.—s. 293b, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(304); s. 152, ch. 70-339.
924.16 Discharge pending appeal.—If a defendant is in custody after judgment of conviction at the time of appeal, the appeal and supersedeas shall not discharge the defendant from custody. The court appealed from or a judge of the appellate court may order the defendant released on bail in cases that are bailable.
History.—s. 293c, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(305); s. 153, ch. 70-339; s. 1555, ch. 97-102.
924.17 Costs when appellant is indigent.—If the court determines that the defendant is indigent and unable to pay costs, the appeal shall be a supersedeas without payment of costs.
History.—s. 293d, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(306); s. 1, ch. 28009, 1953; s. 154, ch. 70-339.
924.18 Bail when state appeals.—If the state appeals after a conviction of the defendant, a justice or judge of the appellate or trial court may in his or her discretion admit the defendant to bail.
History.—s. 294, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(307); s. 155, ch. 70-339; s. 1556, ch. 97-102.
924.19 When operation of order in favor of defendant not stayed.—An appeal by the state shall not stay the operation of an order in favor of the defendant except as provided in s. 924.071(2), or when the appeal is from an order granting a new trial.
History.—s. 295, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(308); s. 155, ch. 70-339.
924.20 Duty of court upon breach of undertaking.—When an appellant at liberty on bail fails to prosecute the appeal as required by the undertaking, the appellate court, in addition to declaring the bond forfeited, may dismiss the appeal and remand the case for further proceedings.
History.—s. 296, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(309); s. 156, ch. 70-339.
924.22 Stay when execution of sentence already commenced.—A defendant who is in custody and has started serving a sentence before an appeal may elect to continue to serve the sentence during the pendency of the appeal even though the defendant may be eligible for bail.
History.—s. 298, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(311); s. 157, ch. 70-339; s. 1557, ch. 97-102.
924.28 Failure of clerk to transmit appeal papers as required.—Failure of the clerk to transmit appeal papers within the time provided shall not prejudice the rights of the parties. The appellate court or trial court may direct the clerk to transmit the papers on its own motion and shall do so on the motion of either party.
History.—s. 304, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(317); s. 158, ch. 70-339.
924.31 When argument necessary.—A judgment may be affirmed if the appellant fails to argue, but it shall not be reversed unless the appellant submits a written brief or makes oral argument.
History.—s. 307, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(320); s. 159, ch. 70-339.
924.33 When judgment not to be reversed or modified.—No judgment shall be reversed unless the appellate court is of the opinion, after an examination of all the appeal papers, that error was committed that injuriously affected the substantial rights of the appellant. It shall not be presumed that error injuriously affected the substantial rights of the appellant.
History.—s. 309, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(322); s. 160, ch. 70-339.
924.34 When evidence sustains only conviction of lesser offense.—When the appellate court determines that the evidence does not prove the offense for which the defendant was found guilty but does establish guilt of a lesser statutory degree of the offense or a lesser offense necessarily included in the offense charged, the appellate court shall reverse the judgment and direct the trial court to enter judgment for the lesser degree of the offense or for the lesser included offense.
History.—s. 310, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(323); s. 161, ch. 70-339; s. 1558, ch. 97-102.
924.35 Enforcement of judgment on affirmance.—When the judgment against the defendant is affirmed, the judgment shall be enforced by the trial court.
History.—s. 311, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(324); s. 162, ch. 70-339.
924.37 Order or decision when state appeals.—
(1) When the state appeals from an order dismissing an indictment, information, or affidavit, or a count of it, or an order granting a new trial and the order is affirmed, the appellate court shall direct the trial court to implement the order. If an order dismissing an indictment, information, or affidavit, or a count of it, is reversed, the appellate court shall direct the trial court to permit the defendant to be tried on the reinstated indictment, information, or affidavit. If an order granting a new trial is reversed, the appellate court shall direct that judgment of conviction be entered against the defendant.
(2) A cross-appeal by the state is not jurisdictional. When the state cross-appeals from a ruling on a question of law adverse to the state, the appellate court shall decide the question if it is reasonably capable of repetition in any proceeding.
History.—s. 313, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(326); s. 163, ch. 70-339; s. 8, ch. 96-248.
924.38 When removal shall be allowed on new trial.—When the appellate court orders a new trial, it shall be held in the court from which the appeal was taken unless the appellate court determines that the trial court improperly denied the defendant’s application for removal of the original trial. If the appellate court determines that removal is proper, it shall designate the court for the new trial.
History.—s. 314, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(327); s. 164, ch. 70-339.