2021 Florida Statutes (Including 2021B Session)
163.3178 Coastal management.—
(1) The Legislature recognizes there is significant interest in the resources of the coastal zone of the state. Further, the Legislature recognizes that, in the event of a natural disaster, the state may provide financial assistance to local governments for the reconstruction of roads, sewer systems, and other public facilities. Therefore, it is the intent of the Legislature that local government comprehensive plans restrict development activities where such activities would damage or destroy coastal resources, and that such plans protect human life and limit public expenditures in areas that are subject to destruction by natural disaster.
(2) Each coastal management element required by s. 163.3177(6)(g) shall be based on studies, surveys, and data; be consistent with coastal resource plans prepared and adopted pursuant to general or special law; and contain:
(a) A land use and inventory map of existing coastal uses, wildlife habitat, wetland and other vegetative communities, undeveloped areas, areas subject to coastal flooding, public access routes to beach and shore resources, historic preservation areas, and other areas of special concern to local government.
(b) An analysis of the environmental, socioeconomic, and fiscal impact of development and redevelopment proposed in the future land use plan, with required infrastructure to support this development or redevelopment, on the natural and historical resources of the coast and the plans and principles to be used to control development and redevelopment to eliminate or mitigate the adverse impacts on coastal wetlands; living marine resources; barrier islands, including beach and dune systems; unique wildlife habitat; historical and archaeological sites; and other fragile coastal resources.
(c) An analysis of the effects of existing drainage systems and the impact of point source and nonpoint source pollution on estuarine water quality and the plans and principles, including existing state and regional regulatory programs, which shall be used to maintain or upgrade water quality while maintaining sufficient quantities of water flow.
(d) A component which outlines principles for hazard mitigation and protection of human life against the effects of natural disaster, including population evacuation, which take into consideration the capability to safely evacuate the density of coastal population proposed in the future land use plan element in the event of an impending natural disaster. The Division of Emergency Management shall manage the update of the regional hurricane evacuation studies, ensure such studies are done in a consistent manner, and ensure that the methodology used for modeling storm surge is that used by the National Hurricane Center.
(e) A component which outlines principles for protecting existing beach and dune systems from human-induced erosion and for restoring altered beach and dune systems.
(f) A redevelopment component that outlines the principles that must be used to eliminate inappropriate and unsafe development in the coastal areas when opportunities arise. The component must:
1. Include development and redevelopment principles, strategies, and engineering solutions that reduce the flood risk in coastal areas which results from high-tide events, storm surge, flash floods, stormwater runoff, and the related impacts of sea-level rise.
2. Encourage the use of best practices development and redevelopment principles, strategies, and engineering solutions that will result in the removal of coastal real property from flood zone designations established by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
3. Identify site development techniques and best practices that may reduce losses due to flooding and claims made under flood insurance policies issued in this state.
4. Be consistent with, or more stringent than, the flood-resistant construction requirements in the Florida Building Code and applicable flood plain management regulations set forth in 44 C.F.R. part 60.
5. Require that any construction activities seaward of the coastal construction control lines established pursuant to s. 161.053 be consistent with chapter 161.
6. Encourage local governments to participate in the National Flood Insurance Program Community Rating System administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to achieve flood insurance premium discounts for their residents.
(g) A shoreline use component that identifies public access to beach and shoreline areas and addresses the need for water-dependent and water-related facilities, including marinas, along shoreline areas. Such component must include the strategies that will be used to preserve recreational and commercial working waterfronts as defined in s. 342.07.
(h) Designation of coastal high-hazard areas and the criteria for mitigation for a comprehensive plan amendment in a coastal high-hazard area as defined in subsection (8). The coastal high-hazard area is the area below the elevation of the category 1 storm surge line as established by a Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH) computerized storm surge model. Application of mitigation and the application of development and redevelopment policies, pursuant to s. 380.27(2), and any rules adopted thereunder, shall be at the discretion of local government.
(i) A component which outlines principles for providing that financial assurances are made that required public facilities will be in place to meet the demand imposed by the completed development or redevelopment. Such public facilities will be scheduled for phased completion to coincide with demands generated by the development or redevelopment.
(j) An identification of regulatory and management techniques that the local government plans to adopt or has adopted in order to mitigate the threat to human life and to control proposed development and redevelopment in order to protect the coastal environment and give consideration to cumulative impacts.
(k) A component which includes the comprehensive master plan prepared by each deepwater port listed in s. 311.09(1), which addresses existing port facilities and any proposed expansions, and which adequately addresses the applicable requirements of paragraphs (a)-(k) for areas within the port and proposed expansion areas. Such component shall be submitted to the appropriate local government at least 6 months prior to the due date of the local plan and shall be integrated with, and shall meet all criteria specified in, the coastal management element. “The appropriate local government” means the municipality having the responsibility for the area in which the deepwater port lies, except that where no municipality has responsibility, where a municipality and a county each have responsibility, or where two or more municipalities each have responsibility for the area in which the deepwater port lies, “the appropriate local government” means the county which has responsibility for the area in which the deepwater port lies. Failure by a deepwater port which is not part of a local government to submit its component to the appropriate local government shall not result in a local government being subject to sanctions pursuant to s. 163.3184. However, a deepwater port which is not part of a local government shall be subject to sanctions pursuant to s. 163.3184.
(3) Expansions to port harbors, spoil disposal sites, navigation channels, turning basins, harbor berths, and other related inwater harbor facilities of ports listed in s. 403.021(9); port transportation facilities and projects listed in s. 311.07(3)(b); intermodal transportation facilities identified pursuant to s. 311.09(3); and facilities determined by the state land planning agency and applicable general-purpose local government to be port-related industrial or commercial projects located within 3 miles of or in a port master plan area which rely upon the use of port and intermodal transportation facilities may not be designated as developments of regional impact if such expansions, projects, or facilities are consistent with comprehensive master plans that are in compliance with this section.
(4) Improvements and maintenance of federal and state highways that have been approved as part of a plan approved pursuant to s. 380.045 or s. 380.05 shall be exempt from the provisions of s. 380.27(2).
(5) The appropriate dispute resolution process provided under s. 186.509 must be used to reconcile inconsistencies between port master plans and local comprehensive plans. In recognition of the state’s commitment to deepwater ports, the state comprehensive plan must include goals, objectives, and policies that establish a statewide strategy for enhancement of existing deepwater ports, ensuring that priority is given to water-dependent land uses. As an incentive for promoting plan consistency, port facilities as defined in s. 315.02(6) on lands owned or controlled by a deepwater port as defined in s. 311.09(1), as of the effective date of this act shall not be subject to development-of-regional-impact review provided the port either successfully completes an alternative comprehensive development agreement with a local government pursuant to ss. 163.3220-163.3243 or successfully enters into a development agreement with the state land planning agency and applicable local government pursuant to s. 380.032 or, where the port is a department of a local government, successfully enters into a development agreement with the state land planning agency pursuant to s. 380.032. Port facilities as defined in s. 315.02(6) on lands not owned or controlled by a deepwater port as defined in s. 311.09(1) as of the effective date of this act shall not be subject to development-of-regional-impact review provided the port successfully enters into a development agreement with the state land planning agency and applicable local government pursuant to s. 380.032 or, where the port is a department of a local government, successfully enters into a development agreement with the state land planning agency pursuant to s. 380.032.
(6) Each port listed in s. 311.09(1) and each local government in the coastal area which has spoil disposal responsibilities shall provide for or identify disposal sites for dredged materials in the future land use and port elements of the local comprehensive plan as needed to assure proper long-term management of material dredged from navigation channels, sufficient long-range disposal capacity, environmental sensitivity and compatibility, and reasonable cost and transportation. The disposal site selection criteria shall be developed in consultation with navigation and inlet districts and other appropriate state and federal agencies and the public. For areas owned or controlled by ports listed in s. 311.09(1) and proposed port expansion areas, compliance with the provisions of this subsection shall be achieved through comprehensive master plans prepared by each port and integrated with the appropriate local plan pursuant to paragraph (2)(k).
(7) Each county shall establish a county-based process for identifying and prioritizing coastal properties so they may be acquired as part of the state’s land acquisition programs. This process must include the establishment of criteria for prioritizing coastal acquisitions which, in addition to recognizing pristine coastal properties and coastal properties of significant or important environmental sensitivity, recognize hazard mitigation, beach access, beach management, urban recreation, and other policies necessary for effective coastal management.
(8)(a) A proposed comprehensive plan amendment shall be found in compliance with state coastal high-hazard provisions if:
1. The adopted level of service for out-of-county hurricane evacuation is maintained for a category 5 storm event as measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale; or
2. A 12-hour evacuation time to shelter is maintained for a category 5 storm event as measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale and shelter space reasonably expected to accommodate the residents of the development contemplated by a proposed comprehensive plan amendment is available; or
3. Appropriate mitigation is provided that will satisfy subparagraph 1. or subparagraph 2. Appropriate mitigation shall include, without limitation, payment of money, contribution of land, and construction of hurricane shelters and transportation facilities. Required mitigation may not exceed the amount required for a developer to accommodate impacts reasonably attributable to development. A local government and a developer shall enter into a binding agreement to memorialize the mitigation plan.
(b) For those local governments that have not established a level of service for out-of-county hurricane evacuation by following the process in paragraph (a), the level of service shall be no greater than 16 hours for a category 5 storm event as measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale.
(c) This subsection shall become effective immediately and shall apply to all local governments. Local governments shall amend their future land use map and coastal management element to include the new definition of coastal high-hazard area and to depict the coastal high-hazard area on the future land use map.
History.—s. 7, ch. 85-55; s. 8, ch. 86-191; s. 24, ch. 87-224; s. 7, ch. 93-206; s. 899, ch. 95-147; s. 11, ch. 96-320; s. 65, ch. 99-251; s. 2, ch. 2005-157; s. 2, ch. 2006-68; s. 4, ch. 2009-85; s. 44, ch. 2010-102; s. 14, ch. 2011-139; ss. 7, 80, ch. 2012-96; s. 6, ch. 2012-99; s. 1, ch. 2015-69; s. 27, ch. 2020-2.